Environmental Studies 3 Week 4
Environmental Studies 3 Week 4
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Date Created: 04/29/14
ENV S 3 042214 The Eurasian Environment and the Age of Discovery Today39s IDs Early Middle Ages Dominated by Christianity Dark Ages o Period after the Greco Roman days before the Renaissance and the Enlightenment Medius Aevum 0 Middle Age in Latin Medieval period o Also called the Medieval period Iesus of Nazareth 0 Year 1 AD died in 33 AD o Belief that he is the Son of God o As he preached he was a threat to the Romans Bethlehem o Born in Bethlehem part of Iudea conquered by the Roman Empire Christ 0 Risen from the dead o Rewarded with everlasting life I Determined to be in heaven I The poor were attracted to this because their life on earth was miserable The Papacy o The office of the pope 64 AD Catholicism Orthodoxy Constantinople o The second Rome Byzantium o Eastern part of the Roman Empire but potential for Western empire was much greater 0 Ancient Greco Roman Villa 0 Spread to Slavic regions into Russia Lords Feudalism Serfs o Lords leaders of the outposts o Feudalism the lords and clergy were in control of the outposts and settlements controlled the masses known as serfs o Serfs peasants the common people Religion as social control o Clergy in control High Middle Ages 900 AD 13OO AD coined by modern historians who see this time separate from early middle ages when life got better for the common people the serfs dangerous to go outside population grew Manorial system o More modernized form of feudalism o Time of knights chivalry which led to crusades Crusades o Liberate the Holy Land from the control of Muslims o 1100s and 1200s o The clash of religions resulted in crusades Rise of Islam o Islam defined as the third and last great monotheistic religion o Arabic definition to have submission and peace with god Allah is of the heaven and not of the earth 0 Based on teachings of Muhammad o Islam requires absolute submission throughout the day Muhammad o A prophet o The developer of the faith of Islam Infidels The Holy Land o Where esus lived and preached Small is beautiful o Environmentally positive time o Small contained units did everything 0 Big utilities and big governments should be small St Francis of Assisi 0 Order of Franciscans o Known for having a very close relationship to nature I Animals and plants I Believed they could be converted to Christianity Insularity Today39s Music Lorena McKinnet The Mask and the Mirror 1994 ENV S 3 042414 Pre Columbian American Overview Today39s IDs Beringia Between Siberia and Alaska most prominent migration of people who settled there Pleistocene Age Last Ice Age o Some of the ice glaciers were 1 mile thick Wisconsin glaciation o In Northern America Bering Strait o As the glaciers melted Beringia disappeared o Became a land bridge for a while and that39s how people came across the Americas Mega fauna o Animals that looked like mammoths Mammoths mastodons horses Overkill hypothesis o Humans were the ones who killed the mega fauna o Human made them extinct Natural die offs and extinction Extra terrestrials Paleo Indians o 8000 BCE o First area they settled was Mexico Clovis New Mexico o Clovis people and Anasazi mark the Archaic period Clovis Points Archaic period 70001000 BCE o People quit migrating and settle in the Americas 0 Anasazi o Had contact with Mesoamerica o They39re advanced technology is stemmed from this Multiple migrations o 1 People came all the way from Southern Asia and island hopped to the west coast of South America Chumash Rural California was isolated so they were saved from the colonialism that was happening manipulated the environment to hunt etc Complex costal hunter gatherers o Called this name 0 One of the cultures in the California area 0 Had a high density population 0 Extremely isolated Chiefdom level Carpinteria 0 One of the most populated areas Acorn harvesting Freshwater shortages Channel Island settlement o When they ran out of water they came to Channel Island Tomol o Canoe made of planks Waterproof baskets o Waterproof with tar o Example of advanced technology of the Chumash Trading 0 Weren39t nomadic Shell beads kelp salt 0 Trade shell beads for kelp and salt 0 Value was depended on how big the shell bead was Mesoamerica One of the oldest settlements in America Nuclear America o Where there was concentrated settlement Olmecs 0 Advanced 0 Shared religion I Something had to be done everyday in order for the sun to rise Built great cities and monuments Highly advanced architecture In uenced distant cultures Where corn was first cultivated 0 Advanced calendar Human sacrifice 0 Origin of human sacrifice for the sun god Olmecs started it I Mayas and Aztecs continued it OOOO Mayas o Called the Greeks of the New World I Apt description of the Mayas because they were similar to Mesopotamia o 300 BCE 900 AD 0 Had writing hieroglyphics o Controlled water had palaces observatories reservoirs etc I Controlled water to such an extent that it hurt the natural environment led to decline o Had city states where many people lived Teotihuacan Science math irrigation Yutacan Peninsula 0 Off the coast of southern Mexico o Was deforested during this time period I Precede drought Deforestation Metal fabrication o Mined gold made bronze but mostly for ornamental things o Were in the bronze age not the iron age Aztecs 0 Had all the advancements of the Mayas o More expansionistic and warlike I Took over the Mayas Came from the mountains 1100 AD 1000 people per year for sacrifice o Most heavily populated in the Americas Tenochtitlan o Drained the swamp and built a city there 0 Most intense environmental manipulation at the time Water control Polytheism OOO Inca Empire Had lots of haves at the state level didn39t have writing did have systems of accounting in the bronze age but didn39t fabricate metals Andean cultures o Incas are the descendants Ecological barriers Manco Capac o Leader brought his people from South America in 1100 AD into Cuzco Valley Cuzco Valley Peru o Present day Peru overlays much of the Inca Empire Huayna Capac o Descendant of Manco Capac o Moved the capital to Cuzco Quipus o System of accounting 0 Knotted strings that communicated how much grain etc Relay station runners roads 0 Required tremendous engineering to go over valleys o Runners who ran the distance to bring the message from Cuzco to on eof the villages Terraced agriculture 0 Grew crops that warn winds from the pacific would reach the crops o Had wells and conduits thought the terrace Tomatoes potatoes squash beans Irrigation 0 Did lots of water control Animal domestication llama alpaca Inca population o 821 million people 0 Organized Today39s Music Music of the California Indians Graham Chapman 19411989 Midterms Majors IDs kind of mini essay Why is the ID called what it is Who what when where why how And the environmental significance of all supporting terms will accompany selected IDs