J 350 Reading Notes, Ch. 2 & Ch. 4
J 350 Reading Notes, Ch. 2 & Ch. 4 J 350
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Endo on Monday August 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to J 350 at University of Oregon taught by Chandler C in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Princ Public Relations in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 08/24/15
J350 Reading Notes Ch 2 Careers in Public Relations 0 Changing Focus in Public Relations 0 Traditionally it was widely believed that public relations practitioners should begin their careers as newspaper reporters or wire service correspondents to polish their writing skills and to learn rsthand how the media function 0 No longer the case though Field of PR has broadened far beyond the concept of quotmedia relationsquot and placing publicity in the mass media Today much writing in PR is done for controlled media company publications direct mail campaigns to key audiences speech writing brochures material posted on an organization s website Expanding area of public relations practice is crisis communication counseling This key role strengthens the in uence of public relations in orgs and requires considerable professional experience Crisis management is where many practitioners nd their greatest satisfaction as professionals they have an impact on their organization and add enormous value to the viability of their department 0 Personal Quali cations and Attitudes 0 Six Essential Abilities Writing skills convey info and ideas in written docs and online communications quickly clearing and concisely is essential Good grammar and correct spelling is vital Research ability arguments must be supported by factspersistence and ability to gather info from variety of sources as well as be able to conduct original research by designing and implementing opinion polls or audits Use internet and computer database Reading newspapers and magazines is also important Planning expertise communication tools and activities are most effective when they are carefully developed and coordinated Person needs to be good planner to make certain that materials are distribute in timely manner events occur without probs and budgets are not exceeded PR people must be highly organized and detail oriented yet still able to see big picture Problem Solving Ability innovative ideas and fresh approaches solve complex problems and make a public relations program unique and memorable Higher salaries and more frequent promotions go to those individuals who show top management they can solve problems creatively BusinessEconomics Competence nuts and bolts of business and economics Students preparing for careers in PR should obtain a solid grounding by taking elective course in economics marketing and especially management Expertise in Social Media social media savvy Social networking blogging tweeting employers preferjob applicants who know about podcasting search engine optimization web content management social bookmarking Cultural Literacy O O O Employers say PR pros need to be culturally literate Cultural literacy refers to a knowledge of history and practices within a culture as well as cultural norms and popular trends Curiosity and sincere interest in a broad range of subjects traditions and people serves PR practitioners well ED Hirsch de nes cultural literacy as shared knowledge that allows people to communicate effectively What Employers Want 10 qualities 0 000000000 Good writing Intelligence Cultural literacy The ability to recognize a good story when you see one Media savvy Contacts Good business sense Broad communication experience Specialized experience Fresh perspective Organizational Roles O O O O 0 Entry level Technician Supervisor Manager Director Execque The Value of Public Relations 0 Good PR increases the effectiveness of ads direct mail sponsorship and all other forms of permission marketing 0 Today s practitioner must understand what effect info and communication efforts will have on the competitive position of the employer whether that employer operates in the for pro t or nonpro t sector of the economy Ch 4 0 Public Relations Departments 0 James Grunig building good relationships with strategic public 0 This approach requires PR executives to be strategic communication managers rather than communication technicians 0 Organizational Factors Determine the Role of PRs Research indicates that the role of PR in an org often depends on the type of org the perceptions of top management and even the capabilities of the PR execu ve Complex orgs have greater tendency than smaller rms to include public relations in policy making process IBM and General Motors authority and power of the PR department are quite high public relations is part of dominant coalition and has a great deal of autonomy In contrast small scale org that offers standardized product of service feels few public pressures an faces little governmental regulatory interest PR in such orgs has little or no input into management decisions and policy formation The most reputable Fortune 500 coprs tend to think of PR as a strategic management tool Primary indicator of department s in uence and power is whethser top communication of cer has a seat at the management table 0 How Public Relations Departments Are Organized Head executive of PR or similarly named department typically has one of three titles 0 Manager 0 Director 0 VP Vice President of cop communications may have direct responsibility for the additional activities of advertising and marketing communications Department usually divided into specialized sections that have coordinator or manager Common division found in larg corps include 0 Media relations 0 Investor relations 0 Consumer affairs government relations 0 Community relations 0 Marketing communications 0 Employee communications Large global cops such as IBM or General Motors substantial communication function 0 Line and Staff Functions PR is staff function PR professionals are experts in communication line managers including the CEO rely on them to use their skills in preparing and processing data making recommendations and executing communication programs to meet organizational objectives It has no direct authority to decide on its own to hold an open house or to order various departments within the company to cooperate Power and in uence of a public relations department usually result from access to top management which uses advice and recommendations from the remainder of the org to formulate policy 0 Level of In uence At the lowest level staff function ma be simply advisory line management has no obligation to take recommendations or even request from Ex the Tylenol crisis in the 19805 0 Quick recall of the public relations staff Compulsory advisory position Compulsory advisory set up org policy requires that line manager at least listen to the appropriate staff experts before deciding on a strategy 0 In this type of org an operating division wishing to publish a brochure cannot do so unless PR department approves the copy and layout Situation is even more restrictive for PR when the legal department has command authority to change a news release with or without the consent of PR 0 Sources of Friction Lawyers often frustrate PR personnel by taking attitude that any public statement can potentially be used against the org in a lawsuit Con ict causing org to seem unresponsive to public concerns Human resources human resources and PR over who is responsible for employee communications Human resources personnel believe that they should control ow of info PR administrators counter by stating that satisfactory external communication cannot be achieved unless effective employee relations are conducted simultaneously Advertising and public relations departments often collide as they compete for funds to communicate with external audiences Philosophical differences Communications may be quotwill it increase salesquot whereas PR asks quotwill it make friendsquot Marketing personnel like advertising staff tend to think exclusively of customers or potential buyers as key publics The Trend Toward Outsourcing 0 Instead of relying exclusively on an inhouse department or using just one rm today s major corporations now use multiple rms for various projects 0 Public Relations Firms 0 0 Large or small each rm gives counsel and performs technical services to carry out an agreed upon program Firm may operate as an adjunct to an org public relations department or if in house department exists conduct the entire effort US home to most of the world s PR rms and generates the most fee income because of its large population and economic base Five largest independent rms Edelman Fleishman Hllard Waggener Edstrom Worldwide Ruder Finn and APCO Worldwide PR rms have proliferated in proportion to the growth of the global economy Executives of PR rms predict healthy future growth for the industry as more countries adopt free market economies and more international media outlets are established Skyrocketing use of Internet has expanded global reach of PR rms Increasingly PR rms are emphasizing counseling aspect of their services although most of their revenues come from implanting tactical aspects such as writing news releases and organizing special events or media tours