Chapter 1-The Human Body: an Orientation
Chapter 1-The Human Body: an Orientation KNR 182
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina on Tuesday August 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KNR 182 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Rinaldi-MIles in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II (lecture) in Kinesiology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/25/15
HUMAN ANATOMY amp PHYSIOLOGY KNR 182 t i Li 71 r 0quot I c I 0 f 539 I t n 0quot t m x 3 I 739 3 w quotz 2 39 i is If g f a h The Human Body An Orientation Chapter 1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy The study of structure tangable structures within the human body that can be studied Subdivisions Gross or macrOSCOpic eg regional surface and systemic anatomyLe digestive system Microscopic eg cytology the study of cells and histology the study of ssues Developmental eg embryology anatomical development of an eg and sperm Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Physiology The study of a function at many levels Subdivisions are based on organ systems Subdivisions are based on organ systems eg renal or cardiovascular physiology Principle of Complementarity Anatomy and physiology are inseparable Function always reflects structure What a structure can do depends on its specific form Physiology is limited or able depending on the organ EX The heart has a right and left ventricle chamber to pump blood to certain parts of the bodythe muscle in the left ventricle is thicker allowing your heart to pump blood to the entire body where as the right ventricle only has to pump blood to the lungs Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Levels of Structural Organization Chemical subatomic particles atoms and molecules Chapter 2 Cellular cells and their organelles Chapter 3 Tissue groups of similar cells Chapter 4 Organ contains two or more types of tissues Organ system organs that work closely together Organismal all organ systems Atoms o 0 Molecule organelle 0 a J yde Gequot 2 Cellular level 2 Chem quotare I I Cells are made up of oms com me o orm mo ecu es molecules Smooth muscle tissue f Cardiovascular S stem ix y Tlssue level H rt Tissues consist of similar Blea d types 01 CENS 00 V 55531 3 Blood vessel organ vessels I it ea Ill 1 y Smooth muscle tissue J x Connective tissue rf39 5 39t 39 39 1quot l u 3 w Nth 13 LJ Epithelial 2 1 tIssue 4 Organ level W Organs are made up of different types of tissues rganismal level Organ system level The human organism is made up Organ systems consist of different of many organ systems organs that work together closely Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Figure 1 1 Examples of Human Body Systems f 1 Integumentary system skin and its appendages including hair amp nails Many types of tissues epidermal hair fat Functions protection external support maintain water cools the body 2 Skeletal system internal support and production of blood cells 3 Muscular system human movement and production of body heat 4 Nervous system controls muscular system and learning amp memory 5 Endocrine system hormonal secretions for chemical regulation 6 Cardiovascular system blood heart arteries veins 7 Lymphatic system take up water within the system and disease control body immunity 8 Respiratory system gas exchange removal of waste products and lt detoxification 9 IIDDIigeGsl ive system breakdown amp absorption of food products into the co K 10 Urinary system water and waste balance Systems very related and dependent on each other 11 Reproductive system only aids in production of future organisms other systems not dependent upon it Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc IQVR 181 KNR 182 Organ Systems Interrelationships All cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs Organ systems work cooperatively to perform necessary life functions Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Digestive system Respiratory system Takes in nutrients breaks them Takes in oxygen and down and eliminates unabsorbed eliminates carbon dioxide matter feces Food 02 K C02 Cardiovascular system 1 Via the blood distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbon dioxide to disposal organs Urinary system Eliminates nitrogenous wastes and excess ions O Nutrients and wastes pass m between blood and cells via the interstitial fluid Integumentary system Feces Protects the body as a whole Urine from the external environment Figure 12 Homeostasis Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes A dynamic state of equilibrium o Ex the body is constantly trying to maintain a constant temperature of 986 degrees in the cold you shiver in heat you sweat Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Involve continuous monitoring and regulation of many factors variables Nervous and endocrine systems accomplish the communication via nerve impulses and hormones When you have an imbalance that is when you have illness and disease Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Input Information sent along afferent Control pathway to control Center center Afferent Efferent Receptor pathway pathway Receptor detects chan e Stimulus 05 produces BALANCE changein 39 Aeu variable Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Output Information sent along efferent pathway to effector Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus 7 3 p 7 reads A 5 5 w and returns variable to homeostatic level Figure 14 TYPES OF HOMEOSTATIC FEEDBACK Negative Feedback The response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus Ex Regulation of body temp a nervous mechanism Regulation of blood volume by ADH an endocrine mechanism Chapter 25 Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Control Center Information sent thermoregmatory Information sent along the afferent center in brain along the efferent pathway to control pathway to center Afferent Efferent effecmrs pathway pathway Receptors Temperaturesensitive Effectors cells in skin and brain Sweat glands Sweat glands activated Response MQQ Evaporation of sweat Stlmulus W Body temperature falls stimulus ends Body temperature BALANCE 595 39 Stimulus ReSponse 39 Body temperature falls Body temperature rises w stimulus ends QM Effectors Receptors Skeletal muscles Temperaturesensrtlve cells in skin and brain Efferent Afferent Shivering pathway pathway begins Information sent Information sent along the efferent along the afferent pathway to control center pathway to effectors Control Center thermoregulatory center in brain Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Figure 15 TYPES OF HOMEOSTATIC FEEDBACK Positive Feedback more of the same The response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus Ex a woman goes into labor and starts having contractions oxytosin causes contractions and more contractions cause oxytosin to be releasedetc it cycles May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Cl Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall Positive feedback cycle is initiated Released 0 Platelets chemicals 0 2 Positive quot lt5 0quot adhere to site attract more o a if feedback 0 and release platelets a 9 V loop chemicals V 9 F C Feedback cycle ends when plug is formed Platelet plug forms Figure 16 Homeostatic Imbalance Disturbance of homeostasis Increases risk of disease ex diabetes Contributes to changes associated with aging Body is constantly keeping your body in check Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc When the anatomy of a body part is intimately tied to its specific function it is called COMPLEMENTARITY Logical organization ATOMSlt MOLECULESlt CELLSlt TISSUES Anatomical Position Standard anatomical body position Body erect Feet slightly apart Palms facing forward Thumbs out young healthy person typically 22 years of age either male or female Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Regional Terms Divisions of body 1 Axial Head neck and trunk 2 Appendioular Upper and lower limbs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Cephalic Upper limb Frontal Acromial Orbital Brachial arm Nasal Antecubital Oral 39 Antebrachial Mental forearm Cervical arPaI Wl iSt Thoracic Saluus hand A its 1 3 mar g gr I K 39 Pol lex y quot Di ital Sternal I Q Abdof ma39 Lower limb UmbIca m Coxal hip Pe39VIC Femoral thigh lnguinal Patellar groin Crural leg Pubic Fibular or peroneal genital Pedal foot Tarsal ankle l Th 1 r Vetatarsa D Back Dorsum Dlgltal a AnteriorNentral HaHUX Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Figure 17a marginal 131am m M iE Zcquot39quotiiquotQl lslF Superior cranial Toward the head end or A upper part of a structure or the body above Inferior caudal Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body below Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Table 11 iii 3531 i Ventral anterior Dorsal posterior 1311131 93 Ti 07493 24921quot 1 55454 F Toward or at the front of the body in front of Toward or at the back of the body behind Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Table 11 3391 a 43 Medial Toward or at the midline of the body on the inner side of Lateral Away from the midline of the body on the outer side of Intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral structure Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Table 11 33135MW 1 3 1 Aquot39 6191 F35 Proximal Distal Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Table 11 Superficial external Toward or at the body surface Deep internal Away from the body surface more internal Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Table 11 Body Planes Plane Flat surface along which body or structure is cut for anatomical study 90 degree right out Body Planes Sagittal plane Divides body vertically into right and left parts Produces a sagittal section Midsagittal median plane Lies on midline Parasagittal plane Not on midline Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Body Planes Frontal coronal plane Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts Transverse horizontal plane Divides body horizontally into superior and inferior parts Produces a cross section Used a lot in MRI imaging Oblique section Cuts made diagonally Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Frontal lane 39 b Transverse section through torso inferior view a Frontal section through torso Pancreas Liver Spinal cord Spleen Liver Heart Stomach Arm Left and right lungs B dy waquot Subcutaneous fat layer Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Median midsagittal plane Mt kTransverse plane c Median section midsagittal Rectum Intestines Vertebral column Figure 18 BODY CAVITIES AND SEROSA Cranial 33le Dorsal body cavity cavity Ventral body cavity contains brain Vertebral 739 I cavity I A I Superior Dorsal KefLThoracic mediastinum body cavity Pleural cavity contains cavity heart and Pericardial lungs cavity within 39 Vertebral Dia hra thn med39astmuf Ventral body caVIty p g cavity Spagms Abdominal cavity 39 Abdomino thoracic and cord contains digestive pelvic abdominopelvic viscera cavities cavrty Pelvic cavity contains urinary bladder reproductive organs and rectum Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Figure 1934 Other Body Cavities Oral and digestive cavities Nasal cavity Orbital cavities Middle ear cavities Syncvial cavities Serous Membrane Serosa Thin doublelayered membrane separated by serous fluid Parietal serosa lines internal body walls Visceral serosa covers the internal organs The membrane prevents your organs from sticking together preventing friction from happening Copyright 2010 P eeee on Education Inc Outer balloon wall comparable to parietal serosa Air comparable to serous cavity Inner balloon wall comparable to visceral serosa Parietal pericardium Pericardial space with serous fluid Visceral pericardium b The serosae associated with the heart Figure 110ab Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Body Orientation Practice oblique transverse cranial proximal ventral thoracic distal sagittal dorsal pelvic Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc frontal coronal supenor spinal parietal inferior lateral abdominal visceral In the anatomical position the palms and face are on the ventral part of the body surface the back and butt are on the dorsal surface The feet are the most inferior while the top of the head is the most supehor Body Orientation Practice oblique frontal coronal transverse supenor cranial spinal proxnmal arietal ventral 390 inferior thoracnc lateral distal abdominal sagittal visceral dorsal pelvic Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Joey discovered some pain in his leg also As a result he needed to get an MRI which took pictures in cross section or in transverse planes It is unusual to take images along the frontalcoronal plane which would separate the body in front and back sections or in the sagittal plane which would give right and left Qantinng
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