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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Wednesday August 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 304 at University of Miami taught by Professor Todorova in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business, management at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 08/26/15
MGT 304 LEADERSHIP LOB 18 EMILIE CROONENBERGHS o Charismatic leadership theory A leadership theory that states that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain l r but quot1213 1 Malta1 anti ar tuiatiahu llIaa a t lalen e as an Ialeallaied eel that Pres a future hettet than the statua qua and la able ta ElTIf39jl the Ilm ariahte ef the trlsrlami Ia terma ti39Iat are untletttahdahle ta athera 1 Jamal Hat thllag ta en hlgh Lenall tit Iihtur hlh and engage ln sf aatrllilte ta achtetre the t lslan El te fallewer Pertetitlt39e elf ethenf atalll39tlles and rapeshe ta elrl aeeels an teelIhs a Untannt anal ha Engaea lIn thatlars that ate aerrcemletl aa netel and rurlter ta Hertha l L a be haviors Most experts believe individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors there is a three step process suggested 1 Develop the aura of charisma by maintaining an optimistic view using passion as a catalyst for generating enthusiasm and communicating with the whole body not just with words 2 Creating a bond that inspires others to follow 3 Brings out the potential in followers by tapping into their emotions Personality is also related to charismatic leadership charismatic leaders are likely to be extraverted selfcon dent and achievement oriented o Charismatic leaders can in uence followers there is a four step process suggested 1 Articulating an appealing vision a longterm strategy for attaining a goal by linking the present with a better future for the organization MGT 304 LEADERSHIP LOB 18 EMILIE CROONENBERGHS 2 A vision is incomplete without an accompanying vision statement a formal articulation of an organization s vision or mission 3 Through words and actions the leader conveys a new set of values and sets an example for followers to imitate 4 The charismatic leader engages in emotioninducing and often unconventional behavior to demonstrate courage and conviction about the vision 0 Research shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers People working for charismatic leaders are motivated to exert extra effort and because they like and respect their leader express greater satisfaction 0 However there is a dark side to charismatic leadership Dark Side Charismatic can affect all types of organizations Many have allowed their personal goals to override the goals of the organization Research has shown that individuals who are narcissistic are also higher in some behaviors associated with charismatic leadership Some charismatic leaders are too successful convincing followers to pursue a vision that can be disastrous Transactional Leaders Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements 0 Transformational Leadership Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own selfinterests and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers Exhibit ii 24 Eam rtgent exchange 31 newersis fier effan rnmalses Irewas far EHZI pel fnrrnsancep I39EEEQI IIIEE arenmllshmenfs by Excep n ave Watrhes and searches flur dm39liazens frem I39lJIE an itemdares EIEEE EI39EIZJ39Il39lL by Ellie39sn Intenrerres enlsr I39 f standards are I39lD li met La seaaFailre b lcaies EasperisIIJIllftlies aweleis maliclng denimn5 lmafrermna Idealzeiel nfllugencez FrmIElseslmsmm and sense 31 mt luru Instilll s rlde all1s resg eL t an Insgpilu39athnafl mathHaitian ammumtcat hlgl l espeetatl ns LEEE symblts ta abacus e farts exprses limlpnI ltant purpnsees Ila slimlalle ways luteEileen 39E mulzen Pramaim Int elllgem Iratlnatltjr and calemail Irelatent sailMung Indis idualllze Elves EEIEFESDI EEI meatless treats emulevee Inel I39iaFIIEIIJsEIEIE caaches aisles L as Transactional and transformational leadership complement each other they aren t opposing approaches to getting things done Transformational leadership builds on transactional leadership and produces levels of follower effort and performance beyond what transactional leadership alone can do 2 MGT 304 LEADERSHIP LOB 18 EMILIE CROONENBERGHS lEIt hilb t quoti f 39 quot39 7 EFFEnci39i riiare The Full Range of Leadership Model shows a full range of leadership model Laissezfaire is the most passive and therefore least effective of leader behaviors Management by exception active or passive is slightly better but it s still considered ineffective Managementbyexception leaders tend to be available only when there is a problem which is often too late Contingent reward leadership can be an effective style of leadership but will not get employees to go above and beyond the call of duty Only with the four remaining styles all aspects of transformational leadership are leaders able to motivate followers to perform above expectations and transcend their selfinterest for the sake of the organization Individualized consideration intellectual stimulation inspirational motivation and idealized in uence all result in extra effort from workers higher productivity higher morale and satisfaction higher organizational effectiveness lower turnover lower absenteeism and greater organizational adaptability How Transformational Leadership works Creativity theirs and others Decentralization of responsibility Propensity to take risks Compensation is geared toward longterm results Greater agreement among top managers about the organization s goals Increase follower self ef cacy giving the group a quotcan doquot spirit Transformational leadership has been impressively supported at diverse job levels and occupations school principals teachers marine commanders ministers presidents of MBA associations military cadets union shop stewards sales reps MGT 304 LEADERSHIP LOB 18 EMILIE CROONENBERGHS The GLOBE study of 18000 leaders from 825 organizations in 62 countries links a number of elements of transformational leadership with effective leadership regardless of country This conclusion is very important because it disputes the contingency view that leadership style needs to adapt to cultural differences Authentic leaders know who they are know what they believe in and value and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly Their followers consider them ethical people The primary quality produced by authentic leadership therefore is trust Authentic leaders share information encourage open communication and stick to their ideals The result people come to have faith in them Ethics amp Leadership only came out recently one reason for this could be the increasing interest in ethics Transformational leaders foster moral virtue when they try to change the attitudes and behaviors of followers Unethical leaders use their charisma to enhance power over followers directed toward selfserving ends An example when leaders give themselves large bonuses while they seek to cut costs by laying off longtime employees Leadership is not valuefree In assessing its effectiveness we need to address the means a leader uses in trying to achieve goals as well as the content of those goals Scholars have tried to integrate ethical and charismatic leadership by advancing the idea of socialized charismatic leadership eadership that conveys other centered not selfcentered values by leaders who model ethical conduct Scholars have recently considered ethical leadership from a new angle by examining servant leadership Servant leaders go beyond their own selfinterest and focus on opportunities to help followers grow and develop They don t use power to achieve ends they emphasize persuasion Characteristic behaviors include listening empathizing persuading accepting stewardship and actively developing followers potential TRUST is a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn out Trust is a primary attribute associated with leadership When trust is broken it can have serious adverse effects on a group s performance MGT 304 LEADERSHIP LOB 18 EMILIE CROONENBERGHS 0 Trust h39quot quot isn t just about the leader the characteristics of followers also in uence its development Integrity refers to honesty and truthfulness It seems the most critical characteristic in assessing another s trustworthiness Integrity also means having consistency between what you do and say Benevolence means the trusted person has your interests at heart even if yours aren t necessarily in line with theirs Caring and supportive behavior is part of the emotional bond between leaders and followers Ability encompasses an individual s technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills 0 Trust propensity refers to how likely a particular employee is to trust a leader Some people are simply more likely to believe others can be trusted o What Are the Consequences of Trust Trust between supervisors and employees has a number of important advantages V Trust Encourages Taking Risks Trust Facilitates Information Sharing V Trusting Groups Are More effective Trust Enhances Productivity MGT 304 LEADERSHIP LOB 18 EMILIE CROONENBERGHS career Funactlnm Psychosocial Func ens II Lehby rbg to get the pmt ge chelleng ng I Counselling the pt to butter anti msrllzule asslgnments hls or her self confluence t coaching the prcretc help develop l liIE 139 39EI EEI39IEPIQ crnali expmencewmh cir her skills encl aimleu39e wort Injecting the prt ge Humming gin cm t Influemtlicil limcilwlcluels Frwllrug frlienml39nlp and mtliiilirii the m gamlizetlcin acceptance 39 Protecting the protege from pcrss lzile mics I39 Acting as a role mcrclel t hlzs or her reputation 39I Spnmcirlngi e prege lin nominating him or her for potential emanates car prumntlcms Acting 35 El muncll ng heard for Ic leesthe P t l might ta hesitant to share with El directsupemlsur A mentor is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a lessexperienced employee a prot g They present ideas clearly listen well and empathize with prot g s problems You might assume mentoring is valuable for objective outcomes like compensation and job performance but research suggests the gains are primarily psychological Traditional informal mentoring relationships develop when leaders identify a less experienced lowerlevel employee who appears to have potential for future development Mentors may be effective not because of the functions they provide but because of the resources they can obtain Most evidence suggests that network ties whether built through a mentor or not are a signi cant predictor of career success Much of an organization s success or failure is due to factors outside the in uence of leadership Success or failure is just a matter of being in the right or wrong place at a given time The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution people make about other individuals MGT 304 LEADERSHIP LOB 18 EMILIE CROONENBERGHS Heletlnnsihitpn TEEIii riierLte rimmed Lead tsiltip Leader39 39tigp trimdual Expe rlitei39tralnlng Hill effect Ii39il Eu rtlrties fur meessl nallsm Subsilmt fur Eu rtu39ties Tm Ilrllli fermt tun raves Hamming Heutml IIEE mi IilglililgliI mizture teal I dta e iert In Eu time39s liar PrimHides Illa feedback Illn effect cum Eultlrtes for lirlii39irlnsli39 IllI satlrsiyllrl Subsiltwt far He en rganlzatmn Etltllcliz fermallze gears I llEll effect an Eu l39tu39tes fer RELEl mites anti urea Illn effect Ell ELIHILITEE fer Inherst WEIFH gm fur Eu utes fail la 39 Experience and training are among the substitutes that can replace the need for a leader s support or ability to create structure 0 Organizational characteristics such as explicit formalized goals rigid rules and procedures and cohesive work groups can also replace formal leadership while indifference to organizational rewards can neutralize its effects 0 Neutralizers make it impossible for leader behavior to make any difference to follower outcomes 0 Online Leadership We propose that online leaders have to think carefully about what actions they want their digital messages to initiate They confront unique challenges the greatest of which appears to be developing and maintaining trust Needs research Today s managers and employees are more linked by networks rather than geographic proximity Online leaders have to think carefully about what actions they want their digital messages to initiate Writing skills are likely to become an extension of interpersonal skills Identi cationbased trust based on a mutual understanding of each other s intentions and appreciation of the other s wants and desires is particularly dif cult to achieve without facetoface interaction 0 Selecting Leaders should have certain items of consideration when in the process Review speci c requirements for the position Personality tests can identify traits High selfmonitors are better at reading situations and adjusting J High emotional intelligence should be an advantage 0 Training Leaders Leadership training of any kind is likely to be more successful with high selfmonitors Such individuals have the exibility to change their behavior Successful with high selfmonitors MGT 304 LEADERSHIP LOB 18 EMILIE CROONENBERGHS Train people to develop quotan understanding about content themes critical to effective visionsquot Teach skills such as trust building mentoring and situationalanalysis skills Behavioral training can increase an individual s ability to exhibit charismatic leadership qualities Finally leaders can be trained in transformational leadership skills that have bottomline results
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