A&P I Class Notes Ch. 1 & 3
A&P I Class Notes Ch. 1 & 3 BIOL 2500 - 018
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Notetaker on Wednesday August 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2500 - 018 at Auburn University taught by Shobnom Ferdous in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/26/15
CHAPTER 1 3 Main Themes 1 Interconnection between structure amp function 11 Integrative Function Ill Adaptive nature relationship between body amp environment Anatomy the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships Physiology the study of the function of body parts History Hippocrates 460377 BC 0 Father of Western Medicine 0 First to separate disease from superstition 0 Created the Hippocratic Oath of doctors Galen o Vivisections of pigs and primates o Wrote the anatomy text used for 1500 years Anatomy was outlawed in the Middle Ages Became more popular with the Renaissance l7th amp 18th centuries Gross macroscopic the study of large visible structures Microscopic the study of structures too small for the eye to see Histology the study of tissues C ology the study of cells Braches of Anatomy Developmental 0 Structural changes that occur between conception amp adulthood o Embryology the study of developments before birth Gross 0 Large body structures 0 Systemic specialization in a speci c system ex limbic 0 Regional specialization in a speci c region ex nose Microscopic 0 Structures too small to be seen without a microscope o Histology amp cytology Radiological o Studying structures using noninvasive technology 0 XRay imaging I More dense structures in white bones I Less dense structures in black adipose CHAPTER 1 Important Terminology Body Positions 1 Anatomic a Standing erect facing forward upper limbs hanging to the sides palms facing forward b Known as the standard position 2 Supine a On the back face upwards 3 Prone a On the stomach face downwards Directional Terms 1 Superior towards the head above Inferior away from head below Anterior in front of ventral Posterior back of the body dorsal Medial towards middle of the body Lateral away from midline Proximal closer to the point of attachment of the limb to the body Distal farther from the point of attachment of the limb to the body 9 Super cial towards the body s surface 10 Deep away from the body s surface 1 1 Bilateral twosided 12 Ipsilateral on the same side of the body 13 Contralateral on opposite sides right arm amp left leg 9999 Body Regions amp Planes 1 Axial Region head neck trunk 2 Appendicular Region appendages limbs 3 Saggital Plane a Vertical plane that divides body into right amp left halves b Midsagittal equal c Parasagittal unequal 4 Frontal Plane a Vertical plane that divides body into anterior amp posterior 5 Transverse Plane a Horizontal plane that divides body into superior amp inferior Body Cavities 1 Dorsal a Cranial skull and brain b Vertebral spinal cord 2 Ventral a 2 main cavities separated by diaphragm b Thoracic i Superior to diaphragm CHAPTER 1 ii Contains heart and lungs c Abdominopelvic i Abdominal superior stomach spleen intestines liver etc ii Pelvic inferior urinary bladder reproductive organs rectum iii 4 quadrants Right Upper Left Upper Right Lower Left Lower iv 9 Regions Right Hypochondriac Epigastric Left hypochondriac Right Lumbar Umbilical Left Lumbar Right Iliac Hypogastric Left Iliac Organs and the 9 Abdominopelvic Regions Right Hypochondriac 0 Liver o Gall bladder 0 Transverse colon 0 Right kidney Epigastric 0 Liver Stomach Pancreas Transverse colon Duodenum Left Hypochondriac o Stomach 0 Left kidney 0 Spleen 0 Transverse colon Right Lumbar o Ascending colon 0 Right kidney 0 Small intestine Umbilical o Kidneys o Ureters 0 Small intestine o Duodenum Left Lumbar o Descending colon 0 Small intestine 0 Left kidney 0 Right Iliac 0 Appendix 0 Small intestine O O O O 0 CHAPTER 1 Cecum Hypogastric O O O O O Sigmoid colon Small intestine Rectum Bladder Ureters Left lliac O O Membranes Small intestine Descending amp sigmoid colon l Serosa serous 9909 Thin doublelayered membrane Lines walls of ventral body cavity and surfaces of organs Visceral covers organs Parietal lines cavity walls Pleurisy i Causes roughening of pleurae or peritoneum ii Causes organ to stick together CHAPTER 3 CELLS The Cell Basic structural amp functional unit of body 0 Structure amp function complementary 0 Cells can only come from preexisting cells Different shapes sizes components and functions Generalized Cell 0 All have common structure and function 0 3 basic parts I Plasma Membrane exible outer boundary I Cytoplasm intracellular uid with organelles I Nucleus DNA control center Specialized Cell 0 Red Blood Cell small no nucleus 0 Skeletal Muscle Cell cylindrical multinucleate o Neuron cell body axon dendrites o Sperm Cell agellated PlasmaCell Membrane Outer boundary to cell Separates inside cell intracellular from outside cell extracellular Controls What enters amp exits the cell Extremely thin Separates intracellular uid from extracellular uid Structure Membrane lipids form exible phospholipid bilayer o Phosphorous head face outwards o Lipid tails touch Specialized membrane proteins move throughout the membrane Referred to as uid mosaic because constantly changing shape Surface sugars form glycocalyx o Carbohydraterich area on cell s surface 0 Used for cell identification Membrane structures hold cells together using cell junctions Composition Lipid Bilayer o Mainly composed of phospholipids I Polar head is hydrophilic attracted to water I Nonpolar tail is hydrophobic repelled by water 0 Glycolipids lipids with sugar group 0 Cholesterol stabilization Lipid Rafts 0 Serve as site for receptors 0 Cell signaling proteins CHAPTER 3 CELLS 0 Important for endocytosis Plasma Proteins o Integral embedded in the membrane 0 Peripheral only embedded in the outside Integral Plasma Proteins Embedded in lipid bilayer transmembrane Important for transport 0 Clustered together forms channels for small watersoluble molecules Na K o Acts as carrier protein substance binding causes change of shape Receptor 0 Substances bind to protein 0 Protein relays message to cell interior Enzyme o Catalyzes reactions eX NaK Pump Cell Junction 0 Tight junction I Integral proteins of neighboring cells fuse together I Prevents substances from passing between cells I EX Epithelial cells of digestive tract 0 Desmosomes I Protein laments extend and link I EX skin and heart 0 Gap junction I Channels connect I Communication between cells I Spread ions sugar etc I EX smooth muscle heart Cell Identity 0 Signatures on cell that give it speci c identity 0 Glycoproteins provide speci c identity Peripheral Plasma Proteins Loosely attached to integral proteins Transport receptor enzyme cell junction cell identity same as integral proteins found above Glycocalyx 0 Sugars sticking out of cell surface Attached to either lipids glycolipids or proteins glycoproteins Speci c biological markers for cellcell recognition Immune system to recognize self vs nonself OOO CHAPTER 3 CELLS CytoplasmCytoskeleton Cytoplasm Material between plasma membrane amp nucleus Cytosol Thicksemitransparent jelly Water proteins salts sugars Organelles Nucleus 0 Contains DNA 0 The brain of the cell Mitochondria 0 Main source of cellular respiration 0 Contains own DNA Ribosomes 0 Make protein Endoplasmic Reticulum 0 Rough has ribosomes amp Smooth Without ribosomes 0 Proteins synthesis Golgi Apparatus 0 Modify amp package proteins Lysosomes 0 Cleaning crew Cytoskeleton 0 Made of microtubules amp micro laments 0 Structural support amp cell movement Tay Sachs Disease 0 Affects speci c enzyme found in lysosomes o Breaks down lipids in brain amp nerve cells CHAPTER 3 TRANSPORT Plasma Membrane Selectively permeable Some molecules are able to pass through easier than others Electrochemical Gradient Concentration gradient electrical gradient Controls the direction the substances need to move Negative amp positive charge of plasma membrane Passive Transport Diffusion Substances move down concentration gradient High gt Low Collision between molecules in high concentration area that scatter to low concentration Speed in uenced by size and temperature of molecules Simple Diffusion o Substances move through lipid bilayer o Lipid soluble amp nonpolar molecules 0 Small molecules Facilitated Diffusion o Lipidinsoluble substances move across the membrane via protein channels amp carrier proteins 0 Glucose Amino Acids and Ions the most common substances Carrier proteins are substance specific 0 Channel proteins allow small substances to diffuse 0 Osmosis Water moving through the semipermeable membrane 0smolarity 0 Total concentration of solutes in solution lsotonic 0 Equal movement of water in amp out of cell 0 Most common solution used Hypotonic 0 Lower concentration of solutes in the solution than in the cell 0 Cells take on H20 and can lyse Hypertonic 0 Higher concentration of solutes in the solution than in the cell 0 Cells lose H20 and shrink Bulk Flow Filtration Movement of solutes amp H20 from High concentration gt Low Faster than diffusion amp osmosis EX kidney filtration CHAPTER 3 TRANSPORT Active Transport Bulk Vesicular Transport Large substance transport Endocytosis 0 Bring substances into cell 0 Phagocytosis cell eating molecules I Uses receptors to target a speci c substance 0 Pinocytosis cell drinking Exocytosis o Removes substances from cell Primary Active Transport ATP amp Transport proteins move substances from High gt Low concentration against the concentration gradient SodiumPotassium Pump 1 3 Na ions from inside the cell bind to protein channel 2 ATP binds to protein and provides energy for conformational change that moves Na outside of the cell leaving behind a Phosphate 3 2 K from outside the cell bind to protein channel the binding causes a conformation change that moves the K into the cell 4 The Phosphate group detaches and the protein channel reverts back to its original shape Secondary Active Transport Movement of 2 substances through transport proteins Movement of one provides energy to move the other Cotransport symport substances move in the same direction Countertransport antiport substances move in opposite directions Membrane Potential Difference in electrical charge across a plasma membrane Cytoplasmic side has a more negative charge Plasma membrane is more permeable to K than Na More K and Proteins inside cell More Na Ca2 Cl39 outside cell Resting Membrane Potential RMP Membrane potential in a resting cell 70mV Extracellular High Na Low K Low Ca Low Cl39 Low Protein Intracellular Low Na High K High Ca High Cl39 High Protein Electrochemical gradient of K sets the RMP Cl39 does not in uence RMP because concentration amp electrochemical gradient are balanced Maintained by SodiumPotassium pump CHAPTER 3 TRANSPORT Establishing Membrane Potential 1 K diffuses out of the cell down the concentration gradient causing a negative charge on the inner plasma membrane 2 K moves into the cell via another channel because it s attracted to the negative charge 3 Negative membrane potential 90mV established when the K movement into and out of the cell are equal 4 Na also enters the cell bringing the resting membrane potential to 70mV P ow 7 6 A 2 0 12 j5 gjgquot quot r 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