Week 1 - Anatomy Notes
Week 1 - Anatomy Notes BIOL 237
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaydra Notetaker on Wednesday August 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 237 at University of New Mexico taught by Shaner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 08/26/15
Week 1 Notes What is anatomy Anatomy is the study of structure Types of anatomy Macroscopic Anatomy such as arms and legs Microscopic Anatomy such as cells Developmental Anatomy What is physiology Physiology is the study of function Necessary Life Functions 1 Maintain Boundaries Control boundaries between the whole organism and separate systems that make up the organism For example Cell membranes that separate cells from the outside environment Our skin that separates us from the outside environment Organ membranes that keep them separate from other organs 2 Movement Organisms need to be able to move Contractibility allows for movement Bones smooth muscle cardiac muscle etc allow for contractibility 3 Response Organisms ability to respond to environment For example Fight or Flight 4 Digestion Allows for absorption and breakdown of foodnutrients 5 Metabolism Chemical processes within the body Types of metabolism 1 Anabolism Breaking down of materials 2 Catabolism Building up of materials 6 Waste Disposal Think of this as you using the restroom 7 Reproduction Cellular Reproduction What skin cells do when you get a cut in order to repairreplace damaged cells Mitosis Week 1 Notes OffspringMating To create more of that species 8 Growth Used in increasing size of body and organs to compliment each other during development What do we need to survive l Nutrients Chemicals that convert to energy to help with growth and reproduction 2 Oxygen A key component of cellular respiration 3 Water Essential for chemical reactions within body Helps maintain uid levels in the body 4 Normal Body Temperature Enzymes in the body only function at certain temperatures Too cold can slow them down Too hot can denature them Fevers Our bodies can elevate our internal body temperature to ght off invaders Lowgrade temperatures are helpful Highgrade temperatures are dangerous Maintained by hypothalamus 5 Proper Atmospheric Pressure Aids in the delivery of oxygen and gas exchanges within our bodies What is homeostasis Homeostasis is the ability to maintain body function at a constant level It is a multisystem process Two ways of maintaining homeostasis 1 Negative Feedback Response reduces stimulus For example When your blood glucose level is too low or too high your pancreas will either increase or decrease the amount of insulin in order to decrease the effects of the blood glucose 2 Positive Feedback Response enhances stimulus For example When your blood vessel is damaged your damaged cells release chemicals to increase the effect of the clotting factors in your blood to close the wound A homeostasis imbalance means you are sick or unhealthy Week 1 Notes What is a stimulus A stimulus is something that produces change How do our bodies maintain homeostasis gt Refers to scanned image Maintaining Homeostasis gt lt l Stimulus produces change 2 Receptors throughout the body notice the change 3 The information input the receptors received is sent along the afferent pathway to the control center of the body 4 The information output is sent along the efferent pathway to the effector What is an effector It enhancesreduces stimulus depending on whether it is positive or negative feedback 5 The response of the effector feeds back to reduceenhance effect of the stimulus and returns the body to a homeostasis level Organ Systems 1 Integumentary System Extemal body covering hairskinnails Protects deeper tissue from injury Synthesizes Vitamin D Houses cutaneous painpressure receptors and sweatoil glands 2 Skeletal System Bones Protects and supports body s organs Serves as the framework for muscles Blood cells are formed in the bone marrow Bones store minerals 3 Muscular System Allows for manipulation of environment locomotion and expression Helps maintain posture and produce heat 4 Nervous System Brain spinal cordnerves Fastacting control system Responds to both internal and external stimulus 5 Endocrine System Intestines Helps to absorb nutrients 6 Cardiovascular System Heartveinscapillariesarteries Helps circulate oxygen and other key nutrients around the body 7 Lymphatic System Week 1 Notes Helps the body s immune system Cleans and lters blood 8 Respiratory System Gas exchange in the body 9 Digestive System Stomachpancreas spleen Absorbs nutrients in the body 10 Urinary System BladderKidneys Serves as a waste eXit 11 Reproductive System Differs between males and females Used for reproductionhormone release Week 1 Notes ll I Mv p r i by l7 7a a 3 74 If a L