Week 1 lecture notes - PY 365
Week 1 lecture notes - PY 365 PY 365
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Hardin on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 365 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Forrest Scogin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/27/15
General Issues in Adult Development and Aging August 25 2015 PY 365 Professor Forrest Scogin LECTURE 1 Introduction to classsyllabus overview LECTURE 2 How old is old 0 How old do you have to be before a child calls you old 0 What is a kid s eye View on being old 0 From the book Old age ain t no place for Sissies O my daddy is 40 and you can tell he s getting old because he s so tired all the time 0 I say you re not old if you can still eat regular food 0 I guess 80 is old because that s when a lot of people die Old age 0 Age is a question of mind over matter If you don t mind it doesn t matter 0 Being able to embrace old age is the best thing to do 0 Your Views become more extensive 0 Youth has no age 0 What is old What is aging Stereotypes of Older Adults 0 Myths of aging lead to negative stereotypes of older people which can result in AGEISM or discrimination against older adults based on their age 0 PHYSICAL STEREOTYPE 0 People think most people over 65 are physically impaired in some way but this is false The majority report no impairments although older adults do suffer from at least one chronic disease 0 COGNITIVE STEREOTYPE 0 People think people over 65 are unable to think clearly remember things or learn new things and that a large percentage are senile but this is false Most are alert mentally capable and able to learn Only 57 have dementia 0 EMOTIONAL STEREOTYPE 0 People think people over 65 are unhappy fearful and depressed but this is false Rates of many emotional disorders are at their lowest ebb for older adults 0 SOCIAL STEREOTYPE 0 People think people over 65 are isolated but this is false Older adults are typically in close contact With family or close friends De ning AgingAge 0 Chronological Age 0 A poor descriptor of timedependent processes and serves only as a shorthand for the passage of calendar time 0 Perceived Age 0 The age you think yourself as being 0 Biological Age 0 Represents the person s present position With respect to potential life span 0 Psychological Age 0 Refers to psychological abilities that people use to adapt to changing environmental demands Why Study Aging 0 1 Personal reasons 0 younger people want to know What to expect 0 better interaction and ability to care for older adults 0 2 Population trends 0 rapid increase in number of older adults increase in proportion of older adults in total population increase in life expectancy increase in political power There Will be an increase in older adults in years to come Alabama s population is 138 older adults Florida has the most old people In 2010 80 of older adults are nonhispanic Whites but that is projected to decrease by 2050 0 3 Professional reasons 0 career may involve working with older people 0 career may entail carrying out research on aging OOOOOOO LECTURE 3 General Issues in Studying Adult Development and Aging Research Methods Basics of Research Methods 0 1 What to examine 0 2 Study designs used 0 3 Seattle study example Developing a research question I What is a research question 0 The problem to be investigated in the study stated as a question 0 It is usually more exploratory than a hypothesis 0 Examples I What is the relation between age and depressive symptoms I How does age affect cognition Independent vs Dependent Variables 0 Independent variable IV 0 Presumed cause in the study 0 Aspect of the environment that an experimenter modifies or manipulates to measure its impact 0 Dependent Variable DV 0 Behaviors or outcomes measured in an experiment 0 Aspect of behavior that is measured in an experiment and assumed to be under the control of the independent variable 0 How does exercise affect depressive symptoms example 0 Exercise IV depressive symptoms DV General Designs for Research 0 Experimental design 0 The experimenter directly manipulates one or more IVs I With random assignment causality can be established 0 Strength internal validity 0 One can be more certain than With any other design about attributing cause to the independent variables 0 Weakness external validity 0 It many be inappropriate to generalize results beyond the laboratory 0 Correlational design 0 Examine the relations among two or more variables as they exist naturally I We can t make causal attributions I We observe behaviors and try to determine Whether any relations exists I Commonly used in aging research 0 Cause and effect relationships can t be determined Designs for Studying Development 0 Crosssectional designs 0 Most common design in use in aging research 0 All measurements are made at the same time or approximate time 0 Advantages I Inexpensive I Good for exploratory investigations 0 Disadvantages 0 Looks only at age differences not changes 0 Confounds cohort effects I Age effect re ects the in uence of timedependent processes on development I Cohort effect re ects differences caused by experiences and circumstances unique to the historical time in which one lives ex WWII home computers 0 Longitudinal designs 0 The same individuals are observed repeatedly at different points in their lives 0 Advantages I Allows direct measurement of change I Less affected by cohort effects 0 Disadvantages O Expensive O Selective attrition dropout 0 Practice effects 0 Outdated measures 0 Sequential designs 0 Combination of crosssectional and longitudinal designs 0 Advantages I Can estimate the effects of aging and cohort O Disadvantages O Expensive and time consuming O Selective attrition is present here too Seattle Longitudinal Study 0 participants completed extensive batteries of intelligence tests including measures of inductive reasoning word uency and perceptual speed as well as plenty of other measures such as information on demographic background lifestyle personality and health These data are the basis of more than 100 scientific publications that inform today s knowledge of adult intellectual functioning MetaAnalysis 0 Technique that allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables 0 Metaanalysis allows researchers to determine whether a finding generalized across many studies that used different methods
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