Chapter 11 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Koh on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at Clayton State University taught by Sara Henderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Chapter 11 Megan Koh • goals that tries to inﬂuence public policy through a variety of activities.▯le with shared ▯ Pros of Interest Groups▯ • They promote diversity. • They create a way in which humans can gather around similar ideas.▯ • They represent the First Amendment to “peaceably assemble”.▯ • They may allow all demographics to inﬂuence government.▯ Cons of Interest Groups▯ • The wealthy have more leverage and, therefore, more inﬂuence. • Companies often use interest groups to maximize proﬁts.▯ • The surplus of interest groups creates red tape.▯ • Since interest group leaders are not elected, democracy is at risk.▯ • Interest groups work to concentrate beneﬁts for the few while distributing costs to the many.▯ Iron triangle: a three-sided network of policy making that includes congressional committees (and subcommittees) in a speciﬁc policy area, executive agencies with authority over that area, and private interest groups focused on inﬂuencing that area.▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Budgets and ▯ Jurisdiction ▯ ▯ Bureaucratic Congressional ▯ Agencies Committees ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Contracts and Campaign ▯ Regulations Interest Contributions ▯ Groups ▯ • Material beneﬁts (of group membership): the speciﬁc, tangible beneﬁts individuals receive from interest-group membership, such an economic concessions, discounts on products, and so forth.▯ • Purpose beneﬁts (of group membership): rewards that do not directly beneﬁt the individual member, but beneﬁt society as a whole.▯ • Solidary beneﬁts (of group membership): satisfaction that individuals receive from ▯ interacting with like-minded individuals fro a cause.▯ What makes some groups more powerful than others?▯ 2. The wealth of the members.▯▯ 3. The dedication of members to the goals of the group.▯ ▯ Chapter 11 Megan Koh • Open shop: the law that allows employees the option of joining or not joining the certiﬁed union at a unionized workplace.▯ • Closed shop: the law that requires employees to become members of the union as a condition of employment in unionized workplaces.▯ • Union shop: the law that requires the employees in unionized workplaces either join the union or pay that equivalent of union dues to it after a set period of time.▯ ▯ Economic Groups▯ • Economic interest group: an organized group that exists to promote favorable economic conditions and economic opportunities for its members.▯ 1. Business Groups▯ • Trade association: a business association that focuses on one particular industry, with membership drawn exclusively from that industry.▯ 2. Labor Unions▯ 3. Professional Associations▯ Noneconomic Groups▯ • Noneconomic interest group: an organized group that advocates for reasons other than its membership’s commercial and ﬁnancial interests.▯ 1. Public-Interest Groups▯ • Public-interest group: an organized group that promotes the broad, collective good of citizens and consumers.▯ 2. Issue and Ideological Groups▯ • Issue and ideological group: an organized group that focuses on speciﬁc issues and ideological perspectives.▯ 3. Government Interest Groups▯ • Intergovernmental lobby: any interest group that represents the collective interests of states, cities, and other governments.▯ ▯ How Interest Groups Achieve Their Goals▯ 1. Lobbying▯ • Lobbying: the means by which interest groups attempt to inﬂuence government oﬃcials to make decisions favorable to their goals.▯ • Grassroots lobbying: communications by interest groups with government oﬃcials through the mobilization of public opinion to exert inﬂuence on government action.▯ 2. Supporting candidates and parties in elections▯ 3. Litigation▯ 4. Persuasion campaigns▯ ▯ OTHER DEFINITIONS:▯ • Pluralism: the theory that public policy largely results from a variety of interest groups competing with one another to promote laws that beneﬁt members of their respective groups.▯ • Majoritarianism: the theory that public policy is a product of what majorities of citizens prefer.▯ Social movement: a large informal grouping of individuals and/or organizations focused on • speciﬁc political or social issues.▯ • Political action committee (PAC): the political arm of an interest group that promotes candidates in election campaigns primarily through ﬁnancial contribution.▯ • Issue network: the broad array of actors (beyond just the iron triangle) that try to collectively inﬂuence a policy area in which they maintain a vested interest.▯ Chapter 11 Megan Koh • Free rider: an individual who does not join or contribute to an interest group that is representing his or her interests.▯ ▯ TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS/ANSWERS:▯ 1. Pluralism suggests that the competition between interest groups is responsible for policymaking.▯ 2. The argument that interest groups are a tool of the political elite and are thus used to advance the views of the wealthy and powerful was ﬁrst set forth by C.Wright Mills.▯ 3. If an individual joins an interest group as a way of advancing his or her own economic interests, material beneﬁts is what that individual is seeking.▯ 4. An “iron triangle” does NOT include a federal court.▯ 5. The American Trial Lawyers Association is a successful interest group primarily because its members tend to be quite wealthy.▯ 6. Two out of every three interest groups are economic-based groups.▯ 7. A unionized workplace that requires employees to join the union by state law is known as a closed shop.▯ 8. If an interest group ﬁles an “amicus curiae” brief, it is engaging in litigation.▯ 9. Ruth Bader Ginsburg was once an important oﬃcial with theACLU.
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