SPHU 1010 Notes Week 1
SPHU 1010 Notes Week 1 SPHU 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dkrefft on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPHU 1010 at Tulane University taught by Mark Dal Corso in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 447 views. For similar materials see Intro to public health in Public Health at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 08/27/15
SPHU 1010 Notes 825 oPoverty equals more disease 0 Several factors malnutrition crowding smoking 0 Called root causes 0 Public health is looking ahead to prevent illness oThings we can do 0 Biological o Physical o Cultural o Economical o Political oDeterminants of health o Individual Modifiable behavior smoking exercise Hereditary o Environmental Famiy stress crime o Health care access quality oSocialfactors Poverty income inequality Education Race Community environment gh1 Reading Notes quotpublic health ia the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through optimized community effort quot 0 the substance of public health is the 39organized community efforts Iquot aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of health Public health has expanded to include 0 Environmental determinants 0 Social determinants 0 Economic determinants Eras of public health 0 Health protection antiquity18305 law based control of behaviors namely through cultural and religious customs Quarantines sexual rules dietary restrictions 0 Hygiene movement 1840518705 sanitary conditions improve environmental actions implemented community wide Snow on cholera Semmelweis and puerperal fever viral statistics collected 0 Contagion control 188019405 germ theory Communicable diseases partially controlled by sanatoriums outbreak gla investigations environmental control vaccination Goldberger and peagra Filling holes in the health care system 19505mid 19805 immigration control focused care on quothigh riskquot groups Beginning of integration of preventative care in general health services Antibiotics risk factors surgeon general s warning Health promotiondisease prevention mid 1980519905 individual behavior and disease prevention in high risks groups and the general population Clinical prevention with control of decision making Aids reduction in heart disease Population health 20005 public health and health care delivery based on facts Evidence based recommendations and pros and cons Globalization information technology global collaboration lntervention full range of strategies designed to protect health and prevent disease disability and death Four components of population health 0 Health issues 0 Populations Health concerns Society s vulnerable groups i determinants of health Behavior Infection Genech Geography Environment Medical Care Socioeconomic cultural Demographic transition the impact of falling childhood death rates and expanded life spans on the size and age distribution of populations Epidemiologicalpublic health transition as social and economic development occurs different types of diseases become prominent Nutritional transition countries frequently move from poorly balanced diets de cient in nutrients to highly processed foods ss Notes 8127 New changes in public health policies are researched based ie air bags What is public health 0 O 0 So olololololologlolo o quotthe science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through organized community effort 0 quotorganized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and promotion of healthquot Although things are changing Public health is not another term for 0 Public hospital system Health care for poor Health care nancing Health care reform Medicine quotlitequot 0 Providing services to individuals Public health and clinical care as well as private partnerships are coming together in new ways to produce collaborative efforts rarely seen in the 19905 Le Obamacare and its mandates 21st century de nition the totality of all evidence based public and private efforts that preserve and promote health and prevent disease disability and death quotthe mission of public health is to ful ll society s interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthyquot Future ofPubic Health Institute of Medicine 1988 o safer neighborhoods 0 grocery stores 0 laws Where doctors run test public health looks at statistics In place of a cure prevention In place of surgery community mobilization education and regulations Medicine applies knowledge gained from science to bene t the individual through diagnosis and treatment Public health applies knowledge gained from science to the improvement of the health status of groups of people through health promotion and disease prevention Hygeia greek goddess responsible for cleaning patients Panacea greek goddess responsible for the power to cure the sick CMS Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services HRSA Health Resources Services Administration More money is given each year for clinical services than money given for prevention and public health services British fathers of public health 0 William Farr Compiled statistics on causes of death quotnosologyquot compared areas and identi ed those with high mortality farr recognized that quotdiseases are more easily prevented than cured and the rst step is the discovery of their excited causesquot 0 Edwin Chadwick Comprehensive report arguing that sanitary condition of the poor not moral shortfalls led to disease and death OOOO Most deaths were children in laboring families 1 in 17 children died more than half Advocated for taxation and government intervention to improve sanitary conditions Public Health Act1848 0 John Snow Cholera outbreak in London through the water supply Mapped out cases based on location then removed the pump and cholera cases went down Advocated for policy over education This outbreak of cholera was similar to the outbreak of Ale in the 19805 All of these men used analyses of population but none knew anything about biology or bacteria Health quota complete state of physical mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or in rmity Epidemiology branch of medicine that deals with the study of causes distribution and control of disease in populations Biostatistics the theory and techniques for describing analyzing and interpreting health data Principle of public health 0 Risk of disease falls on a continuum 0 Most people have average risk but more average risk people die of disease than high risk people Prevention Paradox 0 Small decreases of risk which occur in the entire population have a greater bene t than large decreases in risk among the high risk subgroup Corollary 0 The quality of an intervention is not as important as the quantity Most prevention programs focus on high risk patients The population approach attempts to modify the risk of the entire population and tries to lower the risk of everyone which creates a shift Population is dynamic The main portion of the curve in uences the tail 0 Behavior is contagious o Chopped curves don t appear in real data 0 Le Smoking 30 years ago v smoking today
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