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week 1 lecture notes - PY 352

by: Helen Hardin

week 1 lecture notes - PY 352 PY 352

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Psychlogy > PY 352 > week 1 lecture notes PY 352
Helen Hardin
GPA 2.8
Developmental Psych
Jeffrey Parker

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About this Document

This is the first week of notes in PY 352, lectures 1-4
Developmental Psych
Jeffrey Parker
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Hardin on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 352 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jeffrey Parker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psych in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 08/27/15
Psychology 352 Professor Jeffrey Parker WEEK 1 LECTURE 1 Normative Development 0 The ages we expect certain skills and qualities 0 The skills and qualities that define certain ages 0 Seductive ideas about development 0 Linear pathways 0 Start when something happens and understand its development 0 Equifinality 0 Some significant experience event or achievement occurring at the same time for different people with different backgrounds 0 Multifinality 0 Some significant event experience or achievement will have different effects on individuals LECTURE 2 Seductive Ideas 0 1 Thinking linearly 0 2 Misrepresented speficity 0 occurs by people who commit the follow back vs follow forward fallacy 0 one approach is to take a group of people who that that outcome and follow backwards into their past to learn what they have in common 0 example it is easy to assume that divorce is a risk factor for child abuse later on that divorce is a follow back theory However few children of divorce end up being abused Follow back fallacy has many errors in it 0 3 Excessive abstraction 0 Donald Trump of seductive thinking 0 Refers to thinking about child development in terms of abstract pity analogies and witty metaphors that are satisfying but strip away all the complexity that really exist 0 Apple doesn t fall far from the tree 0 Intuitive sayings that are actually not helpful 0 4 Early determinism O Refers to the tendency for people to think that children are the products of their early child experiences 0 Way of understanding human behavior that is deeply embedded in western cultures but not in other cultures 0 Not true 0 Early experiences do help shape the way we think but our behavior is determined by more recent events 0 We continue to adapt and evolve 0 5Adu1tomorphism 0 term for projecting adult concerns and thinking into younger individuals 0 failure to recognize that children do not have the understanding and concerns of adults LECTURE 3 The Constructivist Revolution 0 Before 4 months babies cannot find hidden objects 0 After 8 months babies can find hidden objects 0 A not B error they go to the 1st location always until after 12 months 0 Why people are like they are we are 0 Advancing a model or hypothesis of development I Simple to complex I Formal to inferred 0 Models describe 0 Role of child 0 Role of environment 0 Role of genetics 0 Role of human evolution 0 Need for past as prologue 0 Change happens 0 Superficial vs fundamental change the continuity question continuous vs discrete change 0 The Mechanistic Child 0 The child is passive O Socialization is oneway 0 Change comes from outside 0 Biology and genetics are irrelevant 0 Continuous changes 0 The scientific focus is on specific behaviors in isolation 0 Before Piaget s arrival John Locke Sets the Tabula Rasa 0 Individuals are born without builtin mental content and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception 0 The term in Latin means blank slate John B Watson 1925 and the Psychological School of Behaviorism 0 Classical conditioning 0 Lil Albert and white rat 0 The demise of classical conditioning 0 The appearance of reinforcement and the hegemony of the person as a black box 0 BF Skinner conditions our operants O Operant conditioning things happen because they are caused Antecedents 0 Reinforcement 0 Making things happen by making them appealing 0 Extinction 0 Making things stop happening by removing appeal 0 Punishment 0 Making things not happen by making them hurt or cost Albert Bandura says its isn t so 0 Behaviorist 0 Tenets of the social cognitive learning theory 0 1 People learn observationally O 2 But they don t automatically show what they know 0 Knowledge vs performance 0 Knowledge I Direct and indirect tutelage 0 Performance 39 Cues and opportunities I Reinforcement O 3 Behavior is cognitively based 0 4 Children develop selfstandards selfefficacy 0 Bandura brings us full circle and to the future LECTURE 4 Piaget Arrives 0 A biologist 0 In uenced by 0 Insights from biology 0 Deep exposure to the philosophy of knowledge 0 Careful observation and description of his own and other s children Piaget s beef with the intelligence movement 0 Departure in thinking can be seen with his employers in the intelligence movement 0 Rejected ideas that stated 0 Getting smarter is knowing more 0 What we know we know faithfully 0 What we know we accrue additively 0 Fundamental interest was how does a child s knowledge of the world develop 0 The child is an active participant seeking understanding and knowledge 0 The relation between the child and the world is adaptive O In constructing it the child is interested in creating equilibrium 0 What a child learns is constrained by what she already knows 0 Intelligence was not what you know but how well you thought 0 Children are fundamentally different kinds of thinkers The Case of Mysterious Disappearing Object 0 Young children were simply not less skilled or learned about hidden objects 0 They had a remarkable kind of thought process 0 Could not separate the concept of an object from the actions it takes to retrieve it 0 Could not make mental representations at all apart from action 0 Their behavior and the A not B error demonstrated this Basic Tenets 0 Organizations 0 His development was organized 0 Development proceeded from undifferentiated and compartmentalized to differentiated and integrated 0 Example growth of human emotions 0 Adaptation 0 Viewed children as adapted to their environment and motivated to return to the state of equilibrium if environment is disturbed or disrupted 0 When people are out of sync this is unpleasant any could be dangerous 0 Humans are born with two useful tools for this I 1 Assimilation label for the process of incorporating new info into existing knowledge I 2 Accommodation label for changing existing knowledge structures to incorporating novel info 0 The child as scientist 0 Saw the child as an active organism working with the environment 0 Rather than passively absorbing inputs children were seeking out experiences posing hypotheses and then testing those hypotheses


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