week 1 lecture notes - PY 352
week 1 lecture notes - PY 352 PY 352
Popular in Developmental Psych
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Hardin on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 352 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jeffrey Parker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psych in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for week 1 lecture notes - PY 352
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/27/15
Psychology 352 Professor Jeffrey Parker WEEK 1 LECTURE 1 Normative Development 0 The ages we expect certain skills and qualities 0 The skills and qualities that define certain ages 0 Seductive ideas about development 0 Linear pathways 0 Start when something happens and understand its development 0 Equifinality 0 Some significant experience event or achievement occurring at the same time for different people with different backgrounds 0 Multifinality 0 Some significant event experience or achievement will have different effects on individuals LECTURE 2 Seductive Ideas 0 1 Thinking linearly 0 2 Misrepresented speficity 0 occurs by people who commit the follow back vs follow forward fallacy 0 one approach is to take a group of people who that that outcome and follow backwards into their past to learn what they have in common 0 example it is easy to assume that divorce is a risk factor for child abuse later on that divorce is a follow back theory However few children of divorce end up being abused Follow back fallacy has many errors in it 0 3 Excessive abstraction 0 Donald Trump of seductive thinking 0 Refers to thinking about child development in terms of abstract pity analogies and witty metaphors that are satisfying but strip away all the complexity that really exist 0 Apple doesn t fall far from the tree 0 Intuitive sayings that are actually not helpful 0 4 Early determinism O Refers to the tendency for people to think that children are the products of their early child experiences 0 Way of understanding human behavior that is deeply embedded in western cultures but not in other cultures 0 Not true 0 Early experiences do help shape the way we think but our behavior is determined by more recent events 0 We continue to adapt and evolve 0 5Adu1tomorphism 0 term for projecting adult concerns and thinking into younger individuals 0 failure to recognize that children do not have the understanding and concerns of adults LECTURE 3 The Constructivist Revolution 0 Before 4 months babies cannot find hidden objects 0 After 8 months babies can find hidden objects 0 A not B error they go to the 1st location always until after 12 months 0 Why people are like they are we are 0 Advancing a model or hypothesis of development I Simple to complex I Formal to inferred 0 Models describe 0 Role of child 0 Role of environment 0 Role of genetics 0 Role of human evolution 0 Need for past as prologue 0 Change happens 0 Superficial vs fundamental change the continuity question continuous vs discrete change 0 The Mechanistic Child 0 The child is passive O Socialization is oneway 0 Change comes from outside 0 Biology and genetics are irrelevant 0 Continuous changes 0 The scientific focus is on specific behaviors in isolation 0 Before Piaget s arrival John Locke Sets the Tabula Rasa 0 Individuals are born without builtin mental content and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception 0 The term in Latin means blank slate John B Watson 1925 and the Psychological School of Behaviorism 0 Classical conditioning 0 Lil Albert and white rat 0 The demise of classical conditioning 0 The appearance of reinforcement and the hegemony of the person as a black box 0 BF Skinner conditions our operants O Operant conditioning things happen because they are caused Antecedents 0 Reinforcement 0 Making things happen by making them appealing 0 Extinction 0 Making things stop happening by removing appeal 0 Punishment 0 Making things not happen by making them hurt or cost Albert Bandura says its isn t so 0 Behaviorist 0 Tenets of the social cognitive learning theory 0 1 People learn observationally O 2 But they don t automatically show what they know 0 Knowledge vs performance 0 Knowledge I Direct and indirect tutelage 0 Performance 39 Cues and opportunities I Reinforcement O 3 Behavior is cognitively based 0 4 Children develop selfstandards selfefficacy 0 Bandura brings us full circle and to the future LECTURE 4 Piaget Arrives 0 A biologist 0 In uenced by 0 Insights from biology 0 Deep exposure to the philosophy of knowledge 0 Careful observation and description of his own and other s children Piaget s beef with the intelligence movement 0 Departure in thinking can be seen with his employers in the intelligence movement 0 Rejected ideas that stated 0 Getting smarter is knowing more 0 What we know we know faithfully 0 What we know we accrue additively 0 Fundamental interest was how does a child s knowledge of the world develop 0 The child is an active participant seeking understanding and knowledge 0 The relation between the child and the world is adaptive O In constructing it the child is interested in creating equilibrium 0 What a child learns is constrained by what she already knows 0 Intelligence was not what you know but how well you thought 0 Children are fundamentally different kinds of thinkers The Case of Mysterious Disappearing Object 0 Young children were simply not less skilled or learned about hidden objects 0 They had a remarkable kind of thought process 0 Could not separate the concept of an object from the actions it takes to retrieve it 0 Could not make mental representations at all apart from action 0 Their behavior and the A not B error demonstrated this Basic Tenets 0 Organizations 0 His development was organized 0 Development proceeded from undifferentiated and compartmentalized to differentiated and integrated 0 Example growth of human emotions 0 Adaptation 0 Viewed children as adapted to their environment and motivated to return to the state of equilibrium if environment is disturbed or disrupted 0 When people are out of sync this is unpleasant any could be dangerous 0 Humans are born with two useful tools for this I 1 Assimilation label for the process of incorporating new info into existing knowledge I 2 Accommodation label for changing existing knowledge structures to incorporating novel info 0 The child as scientist 0 Saw the child as an active organism working with the environment 0 Rather than passively absorbing inputs children were seeking out experiences posing hypotheses and then testing those hypotheses
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'