NHM201Chapter1StudySoup.pdf NHM 201
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 201 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Denise DeSalvo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Through the Lifecycle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/27/15
Tuesday August 25 2015 NHM 201 Chapter 1 Healthy individuals require the same nutrients through life Amounts of nutrients vary based on age growth and development Diets may be defined by cultures and religions Nutrition Assessment communitylevel individuallevel clinicalphysical dietary 24hour recall food diary Nutrition Principle 1 Food is a basic need of humans food security food insecurity do not have access to food on a consistent basis forced to get food in a socially unacceptable way Nutrition Principle 2 Foods provide energy nutrients and other substances needed for growth and health calories nutrients essential body cannot manufacture ex vitamin C nonessential made by the body Some Factors that Impact Nutrient Needs age body size gender gene cs Dietary Reference Intakes DRls Tuesday August 25 2015 Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA amounts are based on scientific evidence Adequate Intakes Al not enough scientific evidence to be an RDA Estimated Average Requirement EAR reflects amount needed for about half of the population Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL anything above this number could lead to toxicity sickness problems could be fatal UL is important to not for fatsoluble vitamins Nutrient Standards on Food Labels Daily Values DV uses RDA based on average calorie intake of 2000 calories Carbohydrates Simple 4 calories per gram monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose disaccharides sucrose maltose lactose Complex 4 calories per gram starches storage in plants glycogen storage in animals fiber Sugar Alcohols polyols fewer calories than regular carbohydrates 2 calories per gram don t raise blood glucose levels as much found in sugarfree foods Tuesday August 25 2015 Alcohol ethanol 7 calories per gram Glycemic Index extent to which carbohydratecontaining foods increase blood glucose levels high glycemic index raises blood glucose levels higherfaster important for diabetics Recommended intake level AMDR acceptable macronutrient distribution range 45 65 of calories added sugar lt 25 of calories 21 25 g fiber for females 30 38 g fiber for males widely distributed in plant foods milk is only animal source Protein amino acids building blocks essential the body cannot make these must be received through food nonessential body makes these consider protein quality does the protein have all of the essential amino acids AMDR 10 35 of calories Fats Lipids fats solid at room temperature oils liquid at room temperature triglycerides glycerol with 3 fatty acids Essential Fatty Acids linoleic acid omega6 Tuesday August 25 2015 average American diet has enough alphalinolenic acid omega3 Most adults do not consume adequate levels of omega3 fatty acids fatty fishes are a good food source of omega3 2 servings of fatty fish per week recommended Fatty acids are important for central nervous systembrain health Saturation States saturated no double bonds unsaturated monounsaturated one double bond between 2 carbons ex olive oil avocados polyunsaturated 2 or more double bonds Hydrogenation and Trans Fats hydrogenation adds hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids changes structure of fatty acids from cis structure to trans form Cholesterol nonessential nutrient fatsoluble clear liquid found in animal products precursor of estrogen testosterone and vitamin D Recommended Intake of Fats 20 35 of calories limit unhealthful fats as much as possible Linoleic acid 17 gday for men 12 gday for women Alphalinolenic acid 16 gday for men 11 gday for women Vitamins watersoluble Tuesday August 25 2015 thiamin riboflavin niacin BB folate B12 biotin pantothenic acid choline vitamin C fatsoluble A D E K Func ons coenzymes antioxidants Minerals 15 essentail minerals calcium phosphorus magnesium iron zinc FINISH all minerals vary in functions deficiencies overdoes carry positivenegative charges so they are important in metabolic reactions Water adults are 60 70 water 15 16 cups for males 11 12 cups for females 75 from fluids 25 from foods Nutrition Principle 3 Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells homeostasis constancy of internal environment Nutrition Principle 4 Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake overdoses of nutrients usually occur through supplements Nutrition Principle 5 Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing fluctuations in food intake nutrient storage regulation of absorption regulation of appetite Tuesday August 25 2015 Nutrition Principle 6 Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states genetic factors or combinations of these causes primary malnutrition secondary malnutrition caused by another health factor primary condition Nutrition Principle 7 Some groups of people are at a higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others people who don t have access to good food individuals with compromised immune systems people who are sick the elderly compromised immune system children not developed immune system pregnant women Nutrition Principle 8 Poor nutrition can influence the development of certain chronic diseases heart disease number one killer and cancer contribute to 50 of deaths in the US next 3 leading causes of death diabetes stroke alzheimer s all of these can be influenced by lifestyle changes Nutrition Principle 9 Adequacy variety and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet variety is important so that you don t miss out on vital nutrients that may not be found in all foods it is important for individuals to eat whole foods instead of just relying on supplements there are some exceptions diseasesdisorders nutrient density more nutrients per calorie emptycalorie foods less nutrients per calorie Nutrition Principle 10 There are no good or bad foods all foods can fir into a healthful diet if nutrient needs are met if calorie intake maintains healthy body weight Nutrition Labeling Nutrition Facts panel must include nutrient content and health claims fat saturated fat trans fat cholesterol sodium total carbohydrates fiber sugars protein vitamins A and C calcium iron daily value based on a reference diet of 2000 calories Ingredient Label Dietary Supplement Labeling Other Labeling Concerns Tuesday August 25 2015 ingredients are listed by weight starting with the greatest amount Nutrition content claims Health claims must include disclaimer dietary supplements are not regulated What s in it Supplements Facts panel lists serving size ingredients and DV Tuesday August 25 2015 enrichment refined grain products have added thiamin niacin riboflavin and iron required by law when it s processed the grain loses those natural nutrients so they are added backin fortification addition of any other nutrient add something that could protect the health of the public at large refined flour folic acid milk vitamin D lowfat and skim milk vitamins A and D some salt iodine prevent goiter Functional Foodsl Neutraceuticals foods mad functional by removing harmful or increasing beneficial substances prebiotics fiberlike indigestible CHO broken down by bacteria probiotics live beneficial bacteria Public Food and Nutrition Programs community programs statelevel programs federal programs SNAP supplemental nutrition assistance program food stamps WIC women infants and children school breakfast and lunch programs Tuesday August 25 2015 Head Start Program summer food service program These are governmentfunded assistance programs Assistance is based on household income and where they are in relation to poverty Nationwide Priorities for Improvements US Nutrition and Health Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans food and exercise MyPlategov USDA s food groups Healthy People 2020 Objectives for the Nation government s goals for everyone s health many different aspects of health The DASH Diet dietary approaches to stop hypertension
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