Notes From Reading, Week 1-2, Chapters 1-3
Notes From Reading, Week 1-2, Chapters 1-3 COMM 1301
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pankuch on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Carlos A Tarin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking in Communication at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 08/27/15
COMM 1301 Week 1 Chapters 13 1 The Power of Public Speaking In a recent survey of more than 300 business leaders the ability to communicate effectively including public speaking was ranked first among the skills of college graduates sought by employers 1 Public Speaking is a vital means of civic engagement Expresses ideas has an impact on issues that matter in society 4 The Tradition of Public Speaking 1 Public Speaking has been taught and studied around the globe for thousands of years Aristotle s Rhetoric composed during the third century BC is still considered the most important work on its subject and many of its principles are followed by speakers and writers today 1 Similarities between Public Speaking and Conversation I Organizing your thoughts logically You organize your ideas to present them in the most persuasive manner 2 Tailoring your message to your audience You must show how the issue is important to the people in that room 3 Telling a story for maximum impact Perhaps you relate an anecdote or have statistics to show or prove something 4 Adapting to listener feedback You explain or give greater insight based on reactions from the audience 2 Differences between Public Speaking and Conversation 1 Public speaking is more highly structured Usually time limitations not often time for questions or commentary demands more detailed planning and preparation than ordinary conversation 2 Public speaking requires more formal language Slang jargon and bad grammar have little place in public speeches 3 Public speaking requires a different method of delivery Effective public speakers adjust their voices to be heard clearly throughout the audience assume a more erect posture and avoid distracting mannerisms and verbal habits 2 Developing Confidence Your Speech Class 1 Nervousness is normal You should try to turn nervousness into positive nervousness see definitions To turn nervousness from negative to positive try these steps A Acquire Speaking Experience B Prepare Prepare Prepare Pick topics you care about and can get passionate about a good rule is that for every minute of speaking time requires one to two hours of preparation time or more C Think Positively D Use the Power of Visualization Visualization Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation Picture yourself giving the speech in a clear and positive way as a mental rehearsal E Know that Most Nervousness is Not Visible F Don t Expect Perfection 4 Public Speaking and Critical Thinking Critical thinking is a matter of logic focused and organized thinking the ability to see the relationships among ideas 3 The Speech Communication Process 1 Begins with a speaker Speaker The person who is presenting an oral message to a listener 2 Has a message from the speaker Message Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else Your goal in public speaking is to have you intended message be the message that is actually communicated getting the verbal message right requires work as you also send a message with your tone of voice appearance gestures facial expressions and eye contact 3 Has a channel by which the message is communicated Channel The means by which a message is communicated 4 Has listeners who receives the message Listener The person who receives the speaker s message 5 In public speaking there is feedback to let you know how your message is being received by the actions of your listeners Feedback The messages usually nonverbal sent from a listener to a speaker 6 Sometimes there is interference that impedes the communication of a message Interference Anything that impedes the communication of a message Interference can be external or internal to listeners There are two kinds of interference One is external to the audience such as traffic temperature of the room or students in the hall The second is internal and comes from within the audience 7 The situation is the time and place in which speech communication occurs Situation The time and place in which speech communication occurs 4 Cultural Diversity and Public Speaking Speechmaking becomes more complex as cultural diversity increases 1 The meanings attached to gestures facial expressions and other nonverbal signals vary from culture to culture Ethnocentrism is part of every culture and it can play a positive role in creating group pride and loyalty But it can also lead to prejudice and hostility toward different racial ethnic religious or cultural groups Ethnocentrism The belief that one s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures When you work on your speeches be alert to how cultural factors might affect how listeners respond Chapter 2 Ethics and Public Speaking The Importance of Ethics Ethics The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs Questions of ethics come into play whenever a public speaker faces an audience Your ethical decisions will be guided by your values your conscience and your sense of right and wrong Ethical Decisions Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines Guidelines for Ethical Speaking 1 Make Sure Your Goals Are Ethically Sound As with other ethical issues there can be gray areas when it comes to assessing a speaker s goals But this is not a reason to avoid asking ethical questions If you are to be a responsible public speaker you cannot escape assessing the ethical soundness of your goals 2 Be Fully Prepared for Each Speech You need to eXplore your topic as much as possible Not only will you give a better speech you will also fulfill one of your major ethical obligations 3 Be Honest In What You Say 4 Avoid Name Calling and other Forms of Abusive Language Name Calling The use of language to defame demean or degrade individuals or groups 5 Put Ethical Principles into Practice Plagiarism Plagiarism presenting another person s language or ideas as one s own Global Plagiarism stealing your speech entirely from another source and passing it off as your own Patchwork Plagiarism Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one s own Incremental Plagiarism Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people The best way to avoid plagiarism of course is not to leave your speech until the last minute By starting early you will give yourself plenty of time to prepare a firstrate speech a speech of your own Quotations Whenever you quote someone directly you must attribute the words to that person Paraphrasing Paraphrase to restate or summarize an author s ideas in one s one words Plagiarism and the Internet When it comes to plagiarism no subject poses more confusion or more temptation than the intemet One way to avoid patchwork plagiarism or incremental plagiarism when working with the intemet is to take careful research notes Guidelines for Ethical Listening I Be Courteous and Attentive 2 Avoid Prejudging the Speaker 3 Maintain the Free and Open Expression of Ideas Week 1 Chapter 3 1 Listening is Important Hearing the vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain Listening Paying close attention to and making sense of what we hear In our communicationoriented age listening is more important than ever Listening is also to you as a speaker A side benefit of your speech class is that it offers an ideal opportunity to work on the art of listening 1 Listening and Critical Thinking Appreciative listening listening for pleasure or enjoyment Empathetic listening listening to provide emotional support for a speaker Comprehensive listening listening to understand the message of a speaker Critical listening listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it 3 Four Causes of Poor Listening 1 Not Concentrating The brain is incredibly efficient Although we talk at a rate of 120 to 150 words a minute the brain can process 400 to 800 words a minute Because we can process a speaker s words and still have plenty of spare brain time we are tempted to interrupt our listening by thinking about other things Spare brain time the difference between the rate at which most people talk and the rate of which the brain can process language 2 Listening Too Hard We try to remember all the names date all the places In the process we often miss the speaker s main point What is worse we may end up confusing the facts as well 3 Jumping to Conclusions Putting words into the speakers mouth or rejecting a speakers ideas as boring or misguided can be symptoms of jumping to conclusions 4 Focusing on Delivery and Personal Appearance rather than the message The speaker s accent personal appearance or vocal mannerisms are sometimes what we judge the speaker by instead of the words he say Focusing on a speaker s delivery or personal appearance is one of the major sources of interference in the speech communication process and it is something we always need to guard against 2 How to Become a Better Listener 1 Take Listening Seriously The first step is to accord listening the seriousness it deserves 2 Be An Active Listener Active listening giving undivided attention to a speaker in an effort to understand their point of view Passive listening listening to something while focusing on something else EX listening to music while studying 4 Ways to improve active listening l 1 Resist Distractions Even though it is easy for the mind to get distracted there are ways to try and not get distracted A Try to anticipate what the speaker will say next don t jump to conclusions B Think about what the speaker said and make sure you understand it Think between the lines asses what the speaker is implying verbally or nonverbally 2Don t be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery You must put aside your judgements of someone based on looks or manner of speech and listen to what they have to say because it may be a good message EX Stephen Hawkings voice synthesizer BUT don t be misled by a speaker if they have a very good appearance or presentation make sure to listen to the message they are giving 3 Suspend Judgment If the speaker has a different opinion people tend to argue with it mentally or dismiss it You should listen and understand their point of view then decide if you agree or not 4 Focus Your Listening Don t try to absorb every word said try to focus on specific things such as the 1 Main Points usually 24 often speakers give an idea of the main points in the introduction 2 Listen for evidence is it accurate Is it taken from objective sources Is it relevant to the speaker s claims Is it enough to support the speakers point 3 Listen for technique to become a good speaker you should study how people are able to speak effectively ANALYZE THE INTRO methods to gain attention credibility and good will STUDY THE SPEAKERS LANGUAGE is it accurate clear vivid and appropriate Does the speaker adapt to the audience and occasion And analyze the delivery is it convincing Does it help or hurt their ideas How good are the use of eye contact gestures and visuals 5 Develop Note Taking Skills There are many systems of note taking but key word outline seems to be the best for most students Key word outline brie y notes the main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form Better note taker better listener COMM 1301 Chapter 2 Ethics and Public Speaking 3 The Importance of Ethics Ethics The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs Questions of ethics come into play whenever a public speaker faces an audience Your ethical decisions will be guided by your values your conscience and your sense of right and wrong Ethical Decisions Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines 1 Guidelines for Ethical Speaking 1 Make Sure Your Goals Are Ethically Sound As with other ethical issues there can be gray areas when it comes to assessing a speaker s goals But this is not a reason to avoid asking ethical questions If you are to be a responsible public speaker you cannot escape assessing the ethical soundness of your goals 2 Be Fully Prepared for Each Speech You need to explore your topic as much as possible Not only will you give a better speech you will also fulfill one of your major ethical obligations 3 Be Honest In What You Say 4 Avoid Name Calling and other Forms of Abusive Language Name Calling The use of language to defame demean or degrade individuals or groups 5 Put Ethical Principles into Practice 2 Plagiarism Plagiarism presenting another person s language or ideas as one s own Global Plagiarism stealing your speech entirely from another source and passing it off as your own Patchwork Plagiarism Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one s own Incremental Plagiarism Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people The best way to avoid plagiarism of course is not to leave your speech until the last minute By starting early you will give yourself plenty of time to prepare a firstrate speech a speech of your own 4 Quotations Whenever you quote someone directly you must attribute the words to that person Paraphrasing Paraphrase to restate or summarize an author s ideas in one s one words Plagiarism and the Internet When it comes to plagiarism no subject poses more confusion or more temptation than the internet One way to avoid patchwork plagiarism or incremental plagiarism when working with the internet is to take careful research notes Guidelines for Ethical Listening 1 Be Courteous and Attentive 2 Avoid Prejudging the Speaker 3 Maintain the Free and Open Expression of Ideas COMM 1301 Week 2 Chapters 5 1 Choosing a Topic The first step in speechmaking is choosing a topic Two broad categories of potential topics for your classroom speeches are topics you know and topics you want to learn about Topics You Know a Lot About draw on your own knowledge and experience Topics You Want to Know More About choose a subject you know a little bit about but want to more information about choose a subject you hold strong opinions or beliefs about Brainstorming for Topics Brainstorming a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas Make a personal inventory of your experiences interests hobbies skills beliefs and so fort Clustering take a sheet of paper and divide it into columns by subject people places things events etc Then list all the things that come to mind in those subjects If a topic seems interesting keep writing things that come to mind about that topic until you have four or five other topics If you are still stuck try an intemet search WHATEVER YOU DO TO FIND A TOPIC START EARLY 2 Determining the General Purpose General Purpose the broad goal of a speech Two goals in a speech I To inform you act as a teacher or lecturer goal to convey information clearly accurately and interestingly aim to enhance the knowledge and understanding of you listeners give them information they did not have before 2 To persuade you act as an advocate or a partisan go beyond giving information you want to change or structure the attitudes or actions of your audience 3 Determining the Specific Purpose Speci c Purpose a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech you should be able to state your specific purpose in a single infinitive phrase that indicates precisely what you hope to accomplish with your speech Speci c purpose should relate the topic directly to the audience what the speaker wants to say what the speaker wants the audience to know as a result of the speech KEEP IN MIND THE AUDIENCE Tips for Formulating the Speci c Purpose Statement Write the purpose statement as a full infinitive phrase not as a fragment EXpress your purpose as a statement not as a question Avoid figurative language in your purpose statement Limit your statement to one distinct idea Make sure Purpose is not too vague or general Question to Ask About Your Speci c Purpose Does my purpose meet the assignment Can I accomplish my purpose in the time allotted Is the purpose too trivial for my audience Is the purpose too technical for my audience 4 Phrasing the Central Idea Central Idea a onesentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major idea of a speech The central idea is a concise statement of what you eXpect to say more precise than your topic or specific purpose statement Residual Message what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech Guidelines for the Central Idea should be eXpressed in a full sentence should not be in the form of a question should avoid figurative language should not be vague or overly general
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