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by: Chelsea Notetaker


Chelsea Notetaker
GPA 4.0
Intro to Psycology
Virginia Pfohl

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About this Document

These notes include the first portion of chapter one discussed in class this week. It includes a summary of the history of psychology, important figures, the big 6 perspectives, the goals of psycho...
Intro to Psycology
Virginia Pfohl
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Notetaker on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Virginia Pfohl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psycology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.




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Date Created: 08/27/15
Intro to Psychology Chapter 1 Notes 11 gt What is Psychology Psychology is derived from the Greek roots quotpsychequot meaning quotmindquot and quotlogosquot meaning study or knowledge Therefore Psychology is the study of the mind along with behaviors gt How did Psychological Sciences come about Psychology was originally thought of as philosophy but thanks to Mr Wilhelm Wudnt the field of psychology was thought of as an independent science Wundt established the first scientific laboratory in Leipzig Germany in 1879 finalizing the transition An interesting fact about Wudnt He always had trouble focusing in school and often zonedout in class However he later completed medical school and became a successful psychologist Wudnt used a method known as introspection a careful examination and record of selfexperiences He used sensation perception and feeling to determine how each element came together to result in a wide range of experiences gt More Important people in the History of Psychology Edward Titchener worked under Wudnt and brought is methods introspection and teachings back to America The psychology associated with Titchener and Wudnt became known as structuralism They attempted to understand the mind by breaking down experiences into simpler parts G Stanley Hall was the first American to work in the experimental lab of Wudnt He founded the American Psychological Association APA in 1892 and in 1883 began the first psychological lab in the US At John Hopkins University William James is often referred to as the father of psychology in America His style focused more on the functions of behavior or how behavior effects how people adapt to their environment This method is known as functionalism He believed that we form habits and that we have a reason to how we behave that it39s more than just breaking things down into simpler parts as opposed to structuralism John Watson is associated with the development of behaviorism He believed that psychology should be limited to studying overt behavior that can be recorded and measured He realized that psychology would never advance as a science without measurable data or scientific proof This became the most popular method of study in the 192039s BF Skinner analyzed cause and effect behaviors and developed quotpositive reinforcement Max Wetheimer founded Gestalt psychology which studies how the brain organizes and builds the way we see our environment He along with assistants Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffa made huge discoveries about perception our brains organize our perception by grouping elements into unified wholes not component pieces Sigmund Freud put his focus on the unconscious mind and believed that we do things and don t completely understand why He thought that childhood experiences are linked to the development of fears and phobias This method was known as psychodynamic perspective He was a therapist not a scientist so he formed the use of psychoanalysis or talk therapy gt The Six Major Perspectives of Modern Psychology Behavioral Perspective Focuses on observable behavior Traditional behaviorism was replaced with a more modern broad approach Social cognitive theory which is the belief that behavior is influenced by factors other than the environmental factors reward but cognitive factors the value of the goal Behavior therapy was developed and includes application of learning principles Cognitivebehavioral therapy uses techniques to change maladaptive thoughts along with overt behaviors People linked with this perspective are Watson and Skinner Psychodynamic Perspective This perspective focuses on our inner lives our dreams fantasies wishes etc This perspective links childhood experiences and psychological issues and believes that people aren t always aware of their deeper motives Freud plays a role in this perspective Humanistic Perspective This perspective formed in the 1950 s was known as the quotThird Force in psychology Believe that free will and conscious choice play a huge role in human experience that we are our own person and choose how we act Maslow and Rogers are key influences Physiological Perspective analyzes relationships between biological processes and actions Evolutionary psychology uses Darwin s theory of Evolution to find a reason for certain behaviors They discovered that certain genes are linked to certain behaviors behaviors that were once crucial for survival Studies the brain body hormones etc Cognitive Perspective Looks at the mental processes that allow us to gain knowledge how we learn form concepts solve problems etc Some scientists even compare these processes to that of a computer Sociocultural Perspective Looks at how culture effects behavior and attitude Mainly focuses on demographics such as age ethnicity gender sexual orientation lifestyle etc and how these demographics effect certain behaviors This perspective has become more relevant with the increasing diversity in America Positive Psychology not considered to be one of the big six perspectives is a growing development in the field of psychology t zeroes in on the positive aspects of human behavior such as love happiness optimism etc They are big on mindfulness or awareness of what a person is doing gt What are the goals of Psychology To describe behavior What do people do To explain or understand behavior Why are they doing it To predict behavior What will they do next Behaviors are generally pretty consistent To modify or change behavior How do they learn How can we teach them new habits The modern field of psychology is very eclectic psychologists combine various perspectives to look at a case gt Types of Psychologists Clinical Psychologist The most common known psychological profession makes up about 50 They are the therapists they talk to patients to see how their fears or whatever the case may be developed and how they can help them change it psychoanalysis or talk therapy Psychiatrist They are like clinical psychologists however they have completed medical school and have the ability to prescribe medication to patients Comparative Psychologist Compare the relationship of how we act to how animals act and study both behaviors not only limited to comparing to animals They compare one behavior to another behavior in some way School Psychologist Work with kids that have learning disabilities behavioral problems etc They look into the situation to try and figure out why the child is acting a certain way whether it be a learning disability a situation at home or whatever and try to find a way to solve the problem Experimental Psychologist Work in research psychology Industrial Psychologist Deal with business situations and determine what type of personality fits what job to help employers know what to look for in an employee


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