A&P Week 1 - Notes and Outline
A&P Week 1 - Notes and Outline BIOL 2457
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Peterson on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2457 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Timothy L Henry in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 362 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 08/27/15
m alzmol 5 uman Anatomy Physiology l BIOLOGY THE STUDY OI LIFE THE MUSTASTON IISHIING PHlENDMENDN ON EARTH I lama A alwdt50 v39 g ia We a cage 9 e A quot L Cm quot EWEJE SCIEHIEIIIIC PrInCIpIES SCIENTIFIC METHOID l l The basis for scientific inquiry Underlle all scientific inquiryi lNatlur quot j natural law 7 r r OBSERVATION All events are natural 8i within aurah lliw to understand Q The evidence af natural ewents have net been deliberately disturbed 7 77 77 es 390 HYPD i l ESIS a Feasible answer Uniformity in space 8 time T T EXPERIMENT The natural laws behind all events apply everywhere I Testing possible answer Variables Carri men fierae tian Cnntmls All human perception of nature is fundamentally the same CDWLUSHUM THEORY I DbIECtIIIIItlm M H I i lria liil39i1il of the possible answer 39 Fecallar tel salience heygnd value systems tastes philosophy moral An explanation of natural phemmena JUdElElmeimta i n in the exactsc entes I A descriptive generalization of m p f39hawse Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Anatomy and P hysio lOgv De ned iT wn branches of science that deal with Human Bod body39s parts and function w W a I sacking of saunams and mmi ps I First studied by cutting span quot3 r a lithium t hmqms RENEW Form and Function Meaning a anamm and phWSIDJD I Dmnm nn an the Human body and grammes 39 egujila on of Innamat environment Bash mammary Suhspeciaal tiaes of Anatomy and physiol gv 1 i677 Mhn wm ib iduq i in jailh 39 12m l it i ii iiu gp hi Hf hm P dh mm dip qu HEBnquot jaunt 1H H I I Brzwzm 5 Structure and Function Structure and function of the body are closely relate 39 Structure of a part of the body allows performance of certain functions Examples e Bones of the skull provide protection for the brain Thin air sacs oil the lungs permit movement of oxygen Levels of Structural Organization l Cl l ElMICAL LEVEL I Basic level 39 Atoms I 39l39l39le smallest unit of matter Essential atoms for life include carbon C hydrogen H oxygen 0 nitrogen hi phosphorus Pl calcium Cal anal sulfur 5 Molecules 39 Two or more atorns lolned together 39 Examples Deoeurlbo nuelel e acid lDNAl Glucose a E ab b CZ ijgrw ISE Mm Q3 2 Mg M GA 8l27l201 5 Levels of Structural Organization 3 um Levels of Structural Drganizatio n CELLULAR LEVEL 39MDIE CUIES combine to form cells Cells are the basil structural and functional units of an organism There are I Muscle cells 39 Nerve cells 39 Epithelial cells Bone Cells Levels of Structural Organization 39j39 3 TISSUE LEVEL 39 I39Tizssues a re groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that wnrk to perform a particular function Fnur basic types of tissues 39 Epithelial 39 Conn active I Muscular NEWGUS Levels if Structural Organization YSTEM LEVEL H 5 39 A system consists oi related organs with a Gammon function Orgainasystem level Digestive system breaks down a nd absorbs fond it includes Organs such as the rnauth rsmaii anti iarge intestines liver gallbladder and pancreas of the human land i Levels of Structural Organization ORGAN LEVEL ITissues a re inin ed together to form nrga n5 39 Organs 0 Structures that are composed of or more different types of tissues I Have specific functions and reangnizahia shapes r Examples I Heart lungs kidneys Stomach is made all sevaral tissues ii Serious membrane smmth muscle and epithelial layers furvdigestinn BIZTIZ39D Il 5 T39 ll 1 1395 in 11w EM Systemn Human Inncm may nunn III 139 m39quot quot u39 2 WIH U Ed in QB gt Emmim tm iwiimr i Clinieal 39C nnnectinn Noninvasive Diannstic Leveis nf St ructuzrai Organization Te39Chni qU es Inspection of the body tn observe any changes An organism nr any living individuai P aipation Aii parts of the body functioning together Ausinurtaatuignn U 395 mm in 5 t Listening to body seunds istethescnpei drained Percussion 3 m 39E Tapping an the heady surface with fingertips and ilistening tn echoes 8127039201 5 Used to assess aspects of body structure and functinn O V CHARACTEiSTiCS 0F LiFE A O HIGANIZATIiDH E COMPLEXIW Campaign manned icar39bon lined 39SIIU39ETUIE B METABOLISM Acclaim and use materials and men from the enwunmentz and caner them inn UIHEFEMI 1mm HUMHEOSTASiS Maintain ii balance m minii structures and innitinner E nwronmem Di and DEVELOPMENT REEPCIHSE TU SMMULI MOVE MEHT irrita hiiim Mariam RSE39P RDDUET39ION E DIFFIEHE NTMWUN ihim DNA F 1E VDWE A capacity In mama lim suwimi A a Metabolism and iResipongiueness Meta boiism Sum of aliii the chemicai process that occur in the bch C Caitab iigm D The bizaidiij cji mmpi Mmigi NEWUHWS mm 11mmquot m D HMM a Anaiboiism I The building up of complex chemical Manama from mailer umpiei ciompmmis Responsiveness 39 Body s abiiiw to detect and respond to changes 0 Demease in body temperature a Responding m sound Nerve iei ectricai signaisi and muSE I E teiis cantraciingi Salamim BIZ 74201 5 Characteristics of Living Huma Organism Basic iife Pil DCESSES D Distinguish iliuing mm nonaliving things WSeven important life process BLW LMPKK Mk 539 m Organization amp Compiexity E tdlfs I Metabolism 9 L I Homeostasis 7 7 Responsiveness to Stimuii Movement quot Gr omh Devei opment Reproduction 3i Di erein tiation 939 Evoiution eta W is m AddMED Swimsis Anamal ismi 539 i 5 Manama Units Sumimiw ascems lugs mmw mi than Camemews Movement and Growth Movement I Motion of the who e body I Includes Urgans cells and tiny sub celliulaxr structures 39 Emamp e Leg muscles mave the body from we place to another Growth 0 Increase in body size 1 Due in an increase in existing calms number of cams or mm Example in bone growth maMr la l s bemaen ce l l s Increase Negative Feedback thmdx Hm 7 53 l ccn lkim ags LBMW Q3E1 HOM EOSTASIS The Unifying Concept of Phys io ogy r 1 SthUIUS H H ncaptm Igt l 1 8i2w2011 5 CONTRdL CENTER gt Effecter gt Respons F Differentiation and Reproduction D111 my Evolution Differentiation OK Mkew edit f I Development 0f 3 cell from an unspecial ized to 39Repmdmtl m specialized state V l f i I W Natural Selection 8 gal gigglfgeailgg gd structures and functions that differ Va riation Stem cells give rise to cells that undergo d i ierentiatien 39 I inheritance Reproduction mi alum3 5Lea15 Result Adaptation i Formation of new cells growth repair or replacement IPreduction of a new individual I I In wb r Q eg ayelilacs 6 Inga UL not allyL Aene vr lr r rte funk A if TWSRS 39439 45 w ruxg Lemme Farragut lm humani hills ns iii lanaii iiiv Pram llm ur mum at lmIII W 39 39 Yang Enginem 39 Ilh Qwrr Iggmrmji 39 Hm Esteem hm milrev in minimum EVOLUTION THE UNIFYIING CONCEPT OF THE LIFE SCIENCES PRINCI FILES 0F EVOLUTION 1 REPRODUCTION Living organisms have the capacity to reproduce Only some will survive to stiatess illlnF reproduce 2 NATIUIMI SELECT iOiNI out 31 GENETIC VARIATION u DNA is variable and changes from generation to generation 3 333 n m I I Mutat iuns geneticwrint ionsl eccur spontaneously 39 quot all INHERITANC E These traits eari be observed in indirid uals and populations El repmductiun in a particular environment erala uni t napalm lm atle of NM MINin 31 Mir 0 Maranan WWI DECENIT WITH MODIFICATION OF THE GENE POOL DIE A POPULATION OVER TIME D spring receive traits that madle their forbearers successful repreductiare success When the environment changes nature selects the adaptable the inedaptahle are weeded Offspring receive their genetic makeup tram tlheir fertreerers Result in ADAPTATION i structures Iphvsialgglcal processes er belhiavmrs that aid in survimal 812 71201 5 8I 2 W201 5 Science Dementia Evidence FOSSIL EVIDENCE E IRANSITIDNAI FORMS HIOMOILDGIES Anatomy Comparative anatomy Developmental biolong Cellular Er Molecular evidence DISTRIBUTION THROUGH SPACE 8 TIME Chronology all 3 eog ra phi hu e W M W 23 f 1 1 EVIDENCE byEXAMP LE quot 39 U V Artificiai Selection Ecology Experimentation Nested Hierarchies Phylogenic Systematics Claidistics A regalail t3 3 elm cs COMMON MISCONCEPTIDNS SCIENCE RlE39lLIGI ON e 7 V I 7 SCIEl ICE ll Evolution I5 only a theory 31 can t be DTDVEH I i Devoted to discovering the factoai character of nature EVOI UIIDW has never been Ob SE FVEd Doesn39t strive tor universallterteiow concerning the discovew oltaitts Evolution violates the 21nd law of a bo u39llhe Eha r aue lDquot all 7 gt 7 r Methodological Naturalism therm dvmam ICE Science s furldlamental princlole LL There are no transitional fgssills Understandin the Phi ital throughooen l qullm tf evidence 3 Evolutionary theory is based on random RELIGION NICE A mome oi Moral Discussion Focus is on onde39rstainolmg meaning and purpose of W r W I ourlives 6 There Is no room for awe lli evolutlorialw R K 7 l 7 Faith trust presupposes a universal meaning and porpote thED W Slurpmotor Men llvsm llthitsl Evolution is tlrle antithesis of religion He39l igni fundamental D39mi39n39e Und erStaodi g the Solrrttlall through divine revelation 8 Evolution says we come from apes Clinical Connection Autopsy Postmortem after death examination of the body and internai organs I Uses I Determine the cause oi death I Identity diseases not detected during iife I Determine the extent of iniuries and contribution to death I identify hereditary conditions Homeostasis interactions Animation 8127201 Homeostasis A condition of equilibrium balance in the bodyquot 5 internal environment I E namie condition Nairow range is compatibie with maintaining iiie I Example I Blood glucose 39Ileveis range between 7 0 and no mg of glucosediL of blood I Whole body contributes to maintain the internal environment within normal limits Homeostasis and Body Fiuiids Maintaining the voiu me and composition of body foi ds is important Body uids are defined as dilute watew soiuitions containing dissoived chemicals inside or outside of the ceil Ilnitirecreilu lar Fluid iEiFi I Fluidl within ceiis IEitit2riaize39l liilair Fluid i ECFi I Fluid ouitsidie celis I Interstitiai fluid is ECEF be Meeo cells and tissues ECF and Body Location Eri aodi Plasma 7 ECLF within hiood wessels v Lymph I ECF within lymphatic vessels cerebrospiriai fluid ACSFJ 39 ECF in the brain and spinal cord Synoviai uid 39 ECLF in joints V Aqueous humor and vitreous body 039 ECF in eyes Control of Homeostasis Homeostasis is constantly being disrupted 0 Physical insults I intense heat or iatk of oxygen 0 Changes in the internal environment Drop in hid gloom on to lack oi In iP hyslioio icai stress i Demands of or schooi Disruptions I Mild and temporary balance is quittinin restoer I intense and prolonged poisoning or more infections interstitiai Fittid and Body Function ICeIIular function depends on the regulation of the composition of interstitiai fluid interstitial fluid is the body39s internal environment quot COfmipDSitiDn of interstitial fiiuid changes as substances move between plasma and the interstitial fitlid I Movement hack and forth across capillaw walls provides nutrients glowsre oxygen ions to tissue toils and removes waste oarbon dioxide Feedback Systems twig of events Body is mmltore and is a Three basic components a c I only M Feedback Systems Receptor quotBody structure that manners changes in a controlled condition DSends input In the ccntroi center Nerve endings of the skin in response in temperature change Feedback Systems 1 Erector a 6 Receives output frnm the ccntroi center 39Prednces a response cr cflect that changes the controlled conditinn Nee riv evew organ or tiesue can serve as an effector I Eire rnple Brody ternperntn re d rcr ps I The brain sends an impulse to the skeletal muscles to contract 39 Shinering occurs to generate heart BIZ7mm 5 Feedback Systems Central Cente I Brain N gEie139zcr the range of values tn be maintained Evaluates inth received from receptors and generates command iifuripliri invollves nerve impulses hormones or other chemical agents 9 Example 39 Brain acts as a central center receiving nerve impulses from slain temperature receptors Negative and Psitive Feedback System 5 Negative Feed hack systems Reverses a change in a controlled condition i Regulation of bided pressure force exerted by blood as it presses again the walls of the blood vessels Pnsitive Feedback systems 39ISirengthenr or reinfcrce a change in one of the body s cnntrnlied cnnditinns I N Drmai child birth 1 quot Omarqu 52w weaIC m g e W B iOKOWN 9 km 7 9 a f b f aton f W3 anagms E94quot i Sdm gb Pahti plas c Pkma iolma a g r U v 39 S e 9 g i 7 hquot I hi i it til Ii I I 23W M W Tk na ig j A LEEViki gs i 39 z W j 00 mm quot i h ger quot quotl J l r W 3 a p 1 ii III i Li sVi t i I m 439 i i w haiLrlr 1 r y r r I V39 39 J L39 I in 39 I i l FI J f k v v wk U h 3 ij Lid h y J a u i 339 I V 1i k Ear7quot F 7 It 3 j i I A v Ty g hAJ Alf e S a li Hg P q I j gt39 ak 4min hm um a J1 lel J 39 7 i fi 7 r Dimm t TwimS whbeim m w a 9F9531m W axm m 39 J meMLD Jam N T M WE Haw all quot7 with 53 63 womaosma dum m v 9fT m mudi MM We WM BOQ HMQQAW VOID 3 foa m a dasgwwmk Shiraz wax eRd Lim i W9 lid h quoti W i f W HZ 55 quotmkmkmm 19955 403 ad fm ram Homw 39i ae C 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