WorldsTogetherWorldsApartCh1Notes.pdf HIST 1010 - 008
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Date Created: 08/27/15
Worlds Together Worlds Apart Chapter 1 notes PRIMARY SOURCE Problems in the Study of Hunters amp Gatherersquot Evidence is incomplete Archaeologists fossil records Anthropologists tribal people Neolithic New stone age Hunters are constantly struggling for survival By 1500 CE the area left to hunters had shrunk drastically distribution fell largely at the peripheries of the continents and in the inaccessible interiors Hunting peoples occupied all of Australia most of western and northern North America amp large portions of South America and Africa Changed with the era of colonial expansion By 1900 much of this way of life had been destroyed The Netsilik Eskimos the Arunta amp the Kung Bushmen are now classic cases of ethnography Ethnography the scientific description of the customs of individuals and cultures Majority of the precontact Eskimos Australian aborigines amp Bushmen lived in much better environments Twothirds of the Eskimos lived south of the Arctic circle Populations in the Australian and Kalahari deserts were only a fraction of the people living in wellwatered regions of southeast Australia and the Cape of Province of Africa Ethnographers Early Homo Sapiens as Hunters and Gatherers Hunted animals fished and foraged for wild berries nuts fruit and grains rather than planting crops vines or trees Modern scholars use the San to reveal how men and women must have lived hundreds of thousands of years ago As late as 1500 hunters amp gatherers occupied 1 3 of the globe including all of Australia most of North America and large tracts of South America Africa and North and Northeast Asia 15 of the world s population Hunters and gatherers could find enough food in about 3 hours of foraging each day affording time for relaxation interaction and friendly competition amongst bands tribes Foragers the original af uent societyquot producing much amp wanting little Men hunt women gather children rear Men and women contributed equally to the bands welfare Women made a larger contribution than men dietary staples were cereals and fruits that needed harvesting and preparation which was most likely women s responsibility Art and Language Developed cultural forms that re ected a consciousness of self a drive to survive an appreciation of beauty amp an ability to manipulate information symbolically Ability to draw allowed Homo sapiens to understand their environment bond among their kin groups amp articulate important mythologies Kin groups groups related by blood ties Gave individuals an adaptive advantage in surviving The earliest wall decorations are at least 41000 years old Subjects are often large game animals because they were considered powerful symbols Drawings appear more than once works may be from several occasions or several artists Few human images Human images show naked females or dancing males Many handprints made by blowing paint around a hand placed on the cave wall or by dipping hands in paint and pressing them to the wall Abstract symbols circles wavy lines amp checkerboards Abstract symbols appear at places of transition in the caves Scholars rejected that the artwork was just decorative because the deep caves were not ancient homes amp their was no natural light to make the images visible Images may have had a social function Helped early humans define themselves as separate from other parts of nature May have been work of powerful shamans individuals believed to hold special powers to understand amp control the mystifying forces of the cosmos Early art paintings amp sculptures Sculptures were shaped out of bone amp stone even older than the paintings Fat amp pregnant females amp animals Animals carved in postures of movement or at rest Germany hollowedout bone ute with five opening approximately 35000 years old was discovered Flute was capable of making harmonic sounds comparable to those of modernday utes Willendorf Venus limestone statuette six inches in height found in Willendorf Austria 25000 years old expresses woman s fertility amp procreative functions PRIMARY SOURCE The Art of Chauvet Cavequot Chauvet Cave southwestern France Prehistoric art found in 1994 dates back 35000 years Oldest prehistoric cave paintings known in Europe More detailed amp more brilliant than the ones at Altamira and Lascaux Drawings of mammoths musk oxen horses lions bears and even rhinos even palm and foot prints Venus figures with exaggerated female genitalia preoccupation with human fertility Bison painting appearance of motion amp speed ability to portray dynamic movement was once thought to be a skill that humans developed much later Language Language the use of sounds to make words that when strung together convey complex meaning to others Unique to modern humans Large brain amp complex cognitive organizations skills are needed to develop language Teach words to offspring amp neighbors Integrate communities for survival Accumulate knowledge Phonemes Any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another Humans can process sounds more quickly than other primates can Use of complex languages occurred about 80000 years ago Proto language earliest language Kung of southern Africa amp Hadza of Tanzania Complex language developed 100000 years ago 19 language families evolved modern languages originate from these 19 The Beginnings of Food Production Revolution in agriculture and ecology Propagate edible plants amp domesticate wild animals Domesticate bring under human control 8 location centers of this agricultural revolution Southwest Asia East Asia Southeast Asia New Guinea highlands subSaharan Africa Andean South America central Mexico amp eastern United States warmer temperatures and wetter climates made the move to settled agriculture easier Population pressure Hunting amp gathering alone couldn t sustain growing foraging populations Took thousands of years Ricks of natural disasters Without food storage systems a sharp drought could wipe out or uproot entire communities Early Domestication of Plants and Animals Settled agriculture application of human labor and tools to a fixed plot of land for more than one growing cycle Requires staying in one place until the soil has been exhausted 9000 BCE abundant rainfall amp mild winters optimal growing conditions in Southwest Asia process of plant domestication probably began when people noticed that certain edible plants retained their nutritious grains longer than others Plant domestication occurred when the plant retained its ripe mature seeds allowing an easy harvest Gradual domestication of plants began in the southern Levant and spread from there into the rest of Southwest Asia Domestication of Animals Dogs were the first animals to be domesticated 14000 years ago near present day Iraq Wild sheep amp wild goats were the next animals to come under human control Central Zagros Mountains region Animals accepted their dependence because humans fed them Domesticated herds became the primary source of protein in the early humans diet Pastoralism the herding of domesticated animals Pastoralists people who moved these animals moved animals on a seasonal basis Goats were smarter than sheep making them harder to control Pigs amp cattle also became domesticated during this time Pastoralists and Agriculturalists Pastoralism appeared around 5500 BCE Agricultural villages grew grains wheat amp barley required lots of land Pastoralists produced both meat and dairy products amp wool for textiles Herders moved their livestock seasonally higher lands in summer valleys in winter Nomadic pastoralism Steppe lands north of the agricultural zone of southern Eurasia horseriding herders No fixed home Transhumant herders Presentday Ukraine across Siberia and Mongolia to the Pacific Ocean Agricultural production occurred in the Fertile Crescent starting around 9000 BCE Around 2000 BCE people learned to yoke amp ride animals to milk them to use their hair for clothing to slaughter them for food Animals were a major advantage in transportation amp welfare Horses were the most important domesticated animal measure of household wealth and prestige Emergence of Agriculture Agriculture revolutions happened worldwide between 9000 BCE and 2000 BCE Commonalities between agriculture revolutions same factors of climate change increased knowledge of plants and animals and the need for more efficient ways to feed house amp promote the survival of larger numbers Five key regions Southwest Asia southern part of China in East Asia western Europe the Americas Africa Southwest Asia The Agricultural Revolution Begins Fertile Crescent rich soils amp regular rainfall 6 large mammals goats sheep pigs cattle camels amp horses vital for meat milk skins including hair and transportation 9000 BCE near Jordan River Valley people began to domesticate the ancestors of barley and wheat Various wild grasses were abundant in this region East Asia Rice and Water Postglacial period Divergent human cultures ourished in northern amp southern Iapan Hunters in the south created primitive pebble and ake tools Northern most island Hokkaido used sharper blades about a third of an inch wide Earthenware pottery production began in the south Pottery was for food NOT decoration Converting mud into pottery was a major breakthrough making storing food easier The spread of lakes marshes and rivers created habitats for population concentrations and agricultural cultivation Yellow River deposited fertile soil that created the North China plain Yangzi River central China Rice in the south millet in the north Evidence of rice cultivation in the Yangzi River valley in 6500 BCE Millet cultivation in the Yellow River valley in 5500 BCE Rice was a staple in wetter South China Europe Borrowing Along Two Pathways Franchthi Cave in Greece reveal that around 6000 BCE inhabitants borrowed innovations from their neighbors in Southwest Asia how to herd domesticated animals amp how to plant wheat and barley Speed and ease of seaborne communications aided astonishingly rapid changes Cattle was the dominant animal Agricultural development was slower than the Mediterranean route for 2 reasons domesticated crops the people who knew about them had to travel by land there were few rivers like the Danube necessary to find new groups of domesticated animals and plants that could ourish in the colder and more forested lands of central Europe Planted their crops in the spring and harvested them in the fall Main cereal crops were wheat and barley Main herd animals were sheep goats and cattle Olives came later A few dozen mud huts FEW settlements large long housesquot built of timber and mud Designed to store produce and to shelter animals during winters 6070 huts or rarely 100 6000 BCE huntergatherers in southern France adopted the herding of domesticated sheep but NOT the planting of domesticated crops transition to settled farming and herding brought an enormous rise in population dominant social organization The Americas A Slower Transition to Agriculture glaciers began to melt around 12500 BCE and water began to cover the land bridge used chipped blades amp pointed spears to pursue their prey mastodons woolly mammoths amp bison established campsites amp moving with their herds Clovis peoplequot Clovis New Mexico Climatic Change and Adaptation Climatic change destroyed the indigenous plants amp trees Tall grassland prairies gave way to areas with short grass Where short grass once ourished cacti took over Hunters learned to trap smaller wild animals for food amp furs Dug for roots amp gathered berries Tools ground from stone rather than chipped implements appeared in the Tehaucan Valley by 6700 BCE Evidence of plant domestication there dates back to 5000 BCE Villages pottery making and sustained population growth came later Peru people found food by fishing and gathering shellfish from the Pacific Archaeological remains remnants of fishnets bags baskets and textile implements gourds for carrying water and stone knives choppers scrapers bone awls and thorn needles Domestication of Plants amp Animals Earliest evidence of plant experimentation in Mesoamerica dates from around 7000 BCE Maize corn squash and beans Central America Maize easy to store relatively imperishable nutritious amp easy to cultivate alongside other plants 5000 years for farmers to complete the domestication settle in one place live there yearround plant maize and stay beyond a single growing amp harvesting cycle Agricultural changes afoot in Mesoamerica were slow and late in maturing Legumes beans grains maize and tubers potatoes complemented one another in keeping the soil fertile and offering a balanced diet Did not use domesticated animals as an alternative source of protein Andean highlands is there evidence of the domestication of tiny guinea pigs Llamas weren t easy to domesticate patience and cooperation were limited Llamas were mainly used for clothing Africa The Race with the Sahara Southwest Asia and East Asia were innovators Europe were borrowers It was in the wetter and more temperate locations of the vast Sahel particularly in mountainous areas and their foothills that villages and towns developed Lush with grassland vegetation amp teeming with animals 14 circular houses faced each other to form a main thoroughfare or a street archaeological investigations unearthed remarkable rock engravings and paintings images portray in fascinating detail the changeover from hunting and gathering to pastoralism pictures of cattle Cave illustrations daily activities of men amp women living in conical huts doing household chores crushing grain on stone amp riding bareback on oxen women always sitting behind the men cultural importance Sahel was colder amp moister 10000 years ago than it is today Rain forests of West Africa yielded root crops yam amp cocoyam Enset plant similar to the banana played the same role in the Ethiopian highlands Revolution in Social Organization Settlement in permanent villages Near fields accessible for sowing amp cultivating near pastures for herding livestock Villagers collaborated to clear fields plant crops and celebrate rituals in which they sang danced and sacrificed to nature and the spirit world for fertility rain and successful harvests Produced stone tools to work the fields amp clay amp stone pots or woven baskets and later on pottervessels to collect and store the crops Villagers became craftworkers produced pottery baskets textiles or tools Trade to farmers and pastoralists for food Craft specialization and the buildup of surpluses contributed to early social stratification some people accumulated more land and wealth while others led the rituals and sacrifices Family also promoted social inequality and stratification Settlement in Villages First settled communities were simple structures circular pits with stones piled on top to form walls with a cover stretched above that rested on poles Social structures were equally simple clanlike and based on kinship networks Community members procured and prepared food Others built terraces and defended the settlement Residents built walls with stones or mud bricks and clamped them together with wooden fittings All involved in securing food All for food food is survival Construction techniques changed houses changed from traditional circular plan to a rectangular one Rectangular shape doesn t exist in nature Truly human Rectangular houses walls did more than support and protect they divided and separated Wadi enNatuf 10 miles from presentday Ierusalem Natufians Dug sunken pit shelters and chipped stone tools around 12500 BCE Dwelled in solid structures buried their dead harvested grains Did NOT plant seeds and did NOT give up hunting Had knowledge of wild plants Best examples of this development village of Catal Hoyiik The household with its dominant male replaced the small relatively egalitarian band as the primary social unit PRIMARY SOURCE A Mesoamerican Creation Mythquot Popol Vuh The elements of Mayan cosmology Mayan right to rule by virtue of their descent from gods Forefathersthe Creators Makers Tepeu and Gucumatz Yac the mountain cat Utiu the coyote Quel a small parrot Hob the crow First four men BalamQuitz BalamAcab Mahucutah IquiBalam Men Women and Evolving Gender Relations Only when humans began to think in complex symbolic ways and give voice to these perceptions in a spoken language did true gender categories as man and woman crystallize Gender roles became more pronounced during the gradual transition to an agriculturally based way of life An enhanced human power over the environment didn t bring equal power to everyone no benefit socially Women were the net losers of the agricultural revolution Advances in agrarian tools introduced a harsh working life that undermined women s traditional status as farmers Men took on the heavy work of yoking animals to plows Women tasks of planting weeding harvesting and grinding the grain into our Toll on women physically damage to the vertebrae osteoarthritis in the toes and curved and archer femurs suggest that the work of bending and over in fields damaged their bodies Affected power relations within households and communities Senior male figure became dominant in these households Males became dominant over females in leadership positions Agricultural revolution marked a greater division among men but particularly between men and women Inequalities PRIMARY SOURCE Mothering and Lactationquot Sex is not the issue lactation is Cooperative breeding is uncommon among mammals generally allomothers alloparents Example grandparents Conclusion Human predecessors commonalities with modern humans stood erect on 2 feet made stone tools lived in extended families communicated with one another Human predecessors communicated by means other than language What separated humans from other animal species was their ability to adapt to environmental change to innovate and to accumulate their breakthroughs in knowledge Able to understand the world around them and even to represent it symbolically through art and language Common features reliance on wood stone and natural fibers to make tools shelter and cultural items and increasing social hierarchies Unequal status between men and women Villages grew but they didn t become cities IMPORTANT VOCABULARY 1 Domesticate 2 Hunting and Gathering 3 Language 4 Pastoralism 5 Settled agriculture