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Week 1 Notes/Chapter 15

by: Hayley Lecker

Week 1 Notes/Chapter 15 BIOL 1306/1106

Hayley Lecker
GPA 3.42
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi

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About this Document

These notes covers 15.1 to 15.6 of Chapter 15. As well as covering information provided during lecture.
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi
Class Notes
Biology, Organismal Biology, general biology, University of Texas at El Paso, UTEP
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Lecker on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1306/1106 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 08/27/15
Biology Week 1 Important Information Professor s Email aidarrouzetnardiutepedu or anthonydnutepedu Chapter 15 Process of Evolution reference pages 298324 151 Evolution Both Factual and the Basis of Broader Theory The changes in the genetic composition of a population is called evolution Evolutionary theory is the understanding and applications of the processes of evolutionary change to biological problems Darwin s 3 major propositions about evolution 1 Species are not immutable they change over time 2 Divergent species share a common ancestor diverged over time Darwin termed this descent with modification 3 Changes over time arecan be explained by natural selection quotSurvival of the Fittest Lecture Notes Darwin Darwin s theory became popular because of the origin of species It was readable book for the average individual to understand and his scholarship was impressive Darwin believed that evolution requires counterintuitive thinking Geometric growth acceleration of exponential process Seeing the full continuum of the variation instead of only seeing the extreme points of evolution importance of variation in species Understanding of the geological time scales evolution happens over millions of years not decades 152 Mutation Selection Gene Flow Genetic Drift and Nonrandom Mating Result in Evolution A population is a group of individuals of a single species that live and interbreed in a particular area This is importance to understand as it is used throughout the chapters Individuals do not evolve however population do Mutation generates genetic variation this builds on Darwin s term descent with modification A mutation is any change in the nucleotide sequence of an organisms DNA Most mutations are a Deleterious meaning harmful or b Neutral meaning no effect Very few mutations are beneficial to the organism An allele is a different form of a gene a variation Selection on genetic variation leads to new phenotypes Through natural selection certain genetic variations will increase in frequency of beneficial mutations in populations Adaption is a favored trait that evolves through natural selection Natural selection acts to remove deleterious mutations from a population it can be related to a safe guard so certain harmful genes do not affect multiple people This can be done by making the individual with the deleterious mutation infertile or by death Gene Flow is the migration of individuals and movements of gametes between populations The book says it is a phenomenon Genetic Drift is the random changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next may cause large changes over time Population bottleneck is the result of environmental events which causes only a small number of a population to survive Founder effect is the random changes in allele frequencies resulting from establishment of population by a very small number of individuals Example Christopher Columbus coming to America think about the genetic changes to the population and the animals and plants introduced into new environments Sexual selection occurs when individuals of one sex mate preferentially with particular individuals of the opposite sex rather than random This can be seen in human behavior with how we pick our quotmatesquot 153 Evolution can be measured by changes in Allele frequencies Evolution can be measured by looking at changes in allele and genotype frequencies over time in a population There is an equation to measure the change in allele frequencies Allele frequency number of copies of the allele in the populationtotal number of copies of all allele in the population please note that the means divided by The frequency of an allele range from 0 to 1 Monomorphic means there is only one allele at a locus meaning the frequency is equal to 1 Polymorphic means more than one allele is at a locus Genetic structure is the frequencies of different alleles at each locus and the frequency of different genotypes in a population HardyWeinberg equilibrium is a model in which allele frequencies do not change across generations and genotype frequencies can be calculated from allele frequencies This applies only to sexually reproducing organisms If a population is at HardyWeinberg equilibrium is must meet the following criteria There must be no mutation No gene flow No selection of genotypes Infinite population size Random mating Populations in nature do not meet the strict guidelines for the HardyWeinberg equilibrium this helps explain why populations evolve Even though in populations do not meet the guidelines it is importance because it is useful for predicting genotype frequencies of a population from its allele frequencies and allows biologists to evaluate which processes are acting on the evolution of a population 154 Selection can be stabilizing directional or disruptive Qualitative traits are traits distinguished by discrete qualities Example black vs white Quantitative traits is the phenotype determined by multiple alleles Natural selection can act on quantitative traits in three ways 1 Stabilizing selection favors average individuals This reduces variation in populations but does not change the mean Keeps the gene sequence the same 2 Directional selection favors individuals that vary in one direction from the mean Individuals at one extreme contribute more offspring to the next generation Evolutionary trends may result 3 Disruptive selection favors individuals that vary in both directions from the mean Individuals at opposite extremes contribute more offspring to the next generation Increases variation in a population 155 Genomes Reveal Both Neutral and Selective Processes of Evolution Nucleotide substitution is the change in one nucleotide in a DNA sequence a point mutation Synonymous substitution this type of substitution mostly does not affect phenotypes because most amino acids are specified by more than one codon Nonsynonymous substitution is deleterious or selectively neutral Substitution rates are highest in positions that do not change the amino acid being expressed They are even higher in pseudogenes copies of genes that no longer are functional 156 Recombination Lateral Gene Transfer and Gene Duplication Can Result in New Features In asexual reproducing species deleterious mutations can accumulate the only way of removing them is death of a lineage Sexual reproduction results in new combinations of genetic material which increases evolutionary potential In the short term it can have disadvantages recombination can break up adaptive combinations of genes reduces the rate at which females pass genes to offspring and dividing offspring into genders reduces the overall reproductive rate Lateral gene transfer is the process of individual s genes organelles or genome fragments moving horizontally from one lineage to another Species can pick up DNA fragments directly from the environment genes may be transferred to a new host in a viral genome and hybridization results in transfer of many genes Gene duplication can cause genomes to can new functions Gene copies can have different fates 1 Both copies retain original function 2 Gene expression may diverge in different tissues or at different times in development 3 One copy may accumulate deleterious mutations and become functionless 4 One copy retains original functions the other changes and evolves a new function Lecture Notes Vocabulary Evolution descent with modification the idea that living species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from the presentday ones also defines more narrowly as the change in genetic composition of a population from generation to generation Natural Selection The differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genetic types belonging to the same population Adaptation A particular structure physiological process or behavior that makes an organism better able to survive and reproduce Artificial Selection The selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits Biogeography Study of location of plants and animals in different places throughout the world Homology A similarity between two or more features that is due to inheritance from a common ancestor Analogy Similarity between two species that is due to convergent evolution rather than descent from a common ancestor Convergent Evolution Independent evolution of similar features from different ancestral traits Vestigial structure A feature of an organism that is a historical remnant of a structure that served a function in the organism s ancestors Exaptation A character previously shaped by natural selection of a particular function is coopted for a new use Intermediate Forms Fossils or organisms that show the transformation from ancestral form to descendant species form


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