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HA & P Chapter 2 Lesson 3

by: Kelsie Carter

HA & P Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Bio 2010

Kelsie Carter

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About this Document

These notes cover CHpater 2 lesson 3
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Sabine Allenspach
Class Notes
chemical, humans, anatomy, levels, acids, bases, neutrals, Protons, electrons, Neutrons
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
 An Introduction to the Chemical Level of Organization 1. chemistry A. is the science of change B. topics in this chapter include: a. matter and energy b. the structure of atoms c. the basis chemical building blocks d. how atoms combine to form increasingly complex structures  Matter and Energy 1. matter- the properties of matter are determined by the properties of molecules and atoms A. matter is anything that occupies space and has mass a. matter exists as solid, liquid and gas B. mass is the amount of matter a substance contains; weight is the force of gravity acting on mass 2. energy- is the capacity to do work, put mass into motion A. potential energy: stored energy B. kinetic energy: energy of movement C. forms of energy: radiant, electrical, heat, chemical, mechanical 3. mass and energy: can neither by created nor destroyed, but one can be converted into the other 4. chemical elements A. all forms of matter are composed of chemical elements (quantity of matter composed of atoms of the same type) B. elements given letter abbreviations called chemical symbols a. 96.5% of body weight is made up of: I. oxygen 65% II. carbon 18.6% III. hydrogen 9.7% IV. nitrogen 3.2% b. 99.3% of total body weight: adding 2 more elements I. calcium 1.8% II. phosphorus 1.0%  Atoms and Atomic Structure 1. atoms A. atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and electrons the move about the nucleus in energy levels 2. subatomic particles A. proton: positive B. neutron: neutral C. electron: negative, very low mass 3. atomic structure A. atomic mass/ atomic weight a. exact mass of all particles (measured in moles) b. average of the mass numbers of the isotopes B. atomic number a. number of protons C. nucleus a. contains protons and neutrons D. isotopes a. different number of neutrons E. electron cloud a. contains the electrons 4. electrons and energy levels A. electrons in the electron cloud: determine reactivity of the atom B. the electron cloud contains shells, or energy levels, that hold a maximum number of electrons a. lower shell: fills first b. outermost shell: valence shell, determines bonding, place of chemical reactions c. the number of electrons per shell corresponds to the number of atoms in that row of the periodic table  Chemical Bonds 1. covalent bonds A. nonpolar covalent bonds a. involve equal sharing of electrons because atoms involved in the bond have equal pull for the electrons B. polar covalent bonds a. involve the unequal sharing of electrons because one of the atoms involved in the bond has a disproportionally strong pull on the electrons b. form polar molecules- like water 2. involve the sharing, gaining and losing of electrons in the valence shell A. three major types of chemical bonds a. ionic bonds: attraction between a cation b. covalent bonds: sharing electrons c. hydrogen bonds: weak polar bonds based on partial electrical attractions  Chemical Reactions 1. when atoms combine or break apart from other atoms a chemical reaction occurs A. reactants: material going into a reaction B. products: material coming out of reactions C. metabolism: all reactants happening at the same time 2. types of reactions A. decomposition reaction a. catabolism: decomposition of complex molecules, releases energy b. breaks chemical bonds: AB  A+B c. hydrolysis: A-B + H2O  A-H + HO-B B. synthesis reaction a. anabolism: synthesis of new molecules, uses energy to create a bond b. forms chemical bonds: A+B  AB c. dehydration synthesis: A-H + HO-B  A-B + H2O C. exchange reaction a. involves decomposition first, then synthesis: involves replacement of atoms by another atom b. AB+CD  AD+CB D. reversible reaction a. end products can revert to the original combining molecules b. A+B  AB  pH and Homeostasis 1. pH: the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution 2. neutral pH: A. 7.35-7.45 pH= human blood B. pure water= 7.0 3. acidic pH lower than 7.0 A. high B. low 4. basic (or alkaline) pH higher than 7.0 A. low B. high  Inorganic and Organic Compounds 1. nutrients: essential molecules from food 2. metabolites: what you make or break down by your body 3. inorganic compounds A. molecules not based on C or O B. carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, and inorganic acids, bases, and salts 4. organic compounds A. based on C B. carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids  Organic Compounds 1. acid A. a solute that adds hydrogen ions from a solution B. strong acids dissociate completely in a solution C. proton donor 2. base A. a solute that removes hydrogen ions from a solution B. strong bases dissociate completely in a solution C. proton acceptor 3. weak acids and weak bases A. fail to dissociate completely B. help balance pH level  Inorganic Compounds 1. buffer and pH control A. buffers a. weak acid/ salt compounds b. neutralize either strong acid or strong base c. example: bicarbonate buffer system B. Antacids: a. basic compounds that neutralize acid and form a salt b. example: alka-seltzer, tums, rolaids  Carbohydrates 1. organic molecules A. contain H, C, and usually O B. are covalently bonded C. contain functional groups that determine chemistry a. carbohydrates b. lipids c. proteins (or amino acids) d. nucleic acids 2. carbohydrates A. contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in 1:2:1 ratio a. monosaccharide: simple sugar I. 3-7 carbon atoms II. example: glucose, fructose, and galactose b. disaccharide: two sugars I. two simple sugars condensed by hydration synthesis II. examples: sucrose, maltose c. polysaccharide: many sugars I. many monosaccharides condense II. examples: glycogen  Lipids 1. lipids A. mainly hydrophobic molecules such as fats, oils, and waxes B. made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms C. examples: fatty acids, eicosanoids, glycerides. Steroids, phosphor- lipids and glycol lipids 2. fatty acids A. long chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxyl group (COOH) at one end B. are relatively nonpolar, except the carboxyl groups C. fatty acids may be: a. saturated with hydrogen (no covalent bonds) b. unsaturated (one or more double bonds) I. monounsaturated: one double bond II. polyunsaturated: two or more bonds 3. eicosanoids: A. derived from the fatty acid called arachidonic acid B. leukotrienes: produced by leukocytes and immune cells, participate in allergic or inflammatory response C. prostaglandins: in any tissues (nucleated cells), inflammatory response, dilate airway, regulate body temperature, and influence blood clotting 4. glycerides: A. fatty acids attached to glycerol molecule B. triglycerides are the three fatty-acid tails a. also called triacylglycerol or neutral fats b. have three important functions: energy, insulation, protection 5. steroids A. four rings of carbon and hydrogen with an assortment of functional groups B. types of steroids: a. cholesterol: gives cell membrane structure b. estrogen and testosterone: sex hormones c. corticosteroids and calcitriol: produced by kidney, form of vitamin D d. bile slats: produced and released by liver into bile, aids in digestion and absorption of lipids 6. phospholipids and glycolipids A. diglycerides attached to either a phosphate group (phospholipid) or a sugar (glycolipid) B. generally, both have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails and are structural lipids, components of plasma (cell) membranes  Proteins 1. are most abundant and important organic molecules 2. contain basic elements: C, H, O, N 3. basic building blocks: amino acids (20), 9 are essential 4. seven major protein functions A. support: structural proteins B. movement: contractile protein C. transport: carrier protein D. buffering: maintain and regulate pH in body E. metabolic regulation: enzymes speed up chemical reaction F. coordination and control: coordinate and control hormones G. defense: antibodies, produced by plasma cells 5. protein structure A. long chains of amino acids B. five components of amino acid structure: essential carbon, hydrogen atom, amino group, carboxyl group, variable side chain 6. protein shape A. primary structure: the sequence of amino acids along a polypeptide B. secondary structure: hydrogen bonds form spirals and pleats C. tertiary structure: secondary structure folds into a unique shape D. quaternary structure: final protein shape- several tertiary strictures together 7. enzyme function A. enzymes are catalyst a. proteins that lower the activation energy of chemical reactions 8. cofactors and enzyme function A. cofactor: ion or molecule combines to enzyme before substrate B. coenzyme: support enzyme function C. denaturation: lost its shape and function from heat and pH 9. glycoproteins and proteoglycans A. Glycoprotein: large proteins and small carbohydrates a. includes enzymes, antibodies, hormones, and mucus production B. proteoglycans: combine with gaqs, large polysaccharide and polypeptide a. function: promote viscosity b. locations: all connective tissues, extracellular matrix (ECM) and on the surface of many cell types


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