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Weekly Notes

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Weekly Notes KIN 202- Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance


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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by ec on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 202- Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance at University of Miami taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.

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Date Created: 08/27/15
MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A CHAPTER 1 PowerPoint 1 amp 2 1 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills Developing managers interpersonal skills also helps organizations attract and keep highperforming employees Positive social relationships are associated with lower stress at work and lower intentions to quit their job and are also strongly related to job satisfaction Interpersonal Skills Results in a Managerial effectiveness b Leadership and communication skills that are critical as a person progresses in a career c Lower turnover of quality employees d Higher quality applications for recruitment e Better nancial performance 2 What Managers Do Manager Someone who gets things done through other people in organizations they can also be called administrators especially in non pro t organizations Organization A consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals Planning organizations goals and the strategy to achieve that making plans to have activities organizing what tasks have to be done who does them how to group them and where the decisions are the be made leading when managers motivate employees direct their activities chose the most effective way of communication or resolve con icts and controlling Monitoring comparing and potential correcting are the management functions most often studied Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different highly interrelated roles or sets of behaviors attributable to their jobs They are primarily 1 interpersonal 2 informational 3 decisional Managerial Roles Management Skills are a number of skills that differentiate effective from ineffective managers Technical SkillsThe ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise All jobs require some specialized expertise and many people develop their technical skills on the job Human SkillsAbility to work with understand and motivate other people both individually and in groups describes human skills MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A Conceptual SkillsThe mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex s ua ons Luthans and associates found that all managers engage in four managerial activities a Traditional management decision making planning and controlling 32 b Communication exchanging routine information and processing paperwork 29 c Human resource management motivating disciplining managing con ict staf ng and training 20 d Networking socializing politicking and interacting with outsiders 19 It is clear managers must develop their people skills to be effective and successful 3 Enter Organizational Behavior OB is a eld of study that investigates the impact that individuals groups and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization s effectiveness It studies three determinants 1 individuals 2 groups 3 structure OB is the study of what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the organizations performance 4 Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study This systematic approach is the belief that behavior is not random and we can identify fundamental consistencies underlying the behavior of all individuals and modify them to re ect individual differences Systematic Study looking at relationships attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scienti c evidence Behavior generally is predictable if we know how the person perceived the situation and what is important to him or her EvidenceBased Management EBM The basing of managerial decisions on the best available scienti c evidence Complements systematic study it also argues for managers to make decisions on evidence Intuition A gut feeling not necessarily supported by research Systematic study and EBM add to intuition or those quotgut feelingsquot about quotwhy I do what I doquot and quotwhat makes others tickquot If we make all decisions with intuition or gut instinct we re likely working with incomplete information MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A 5 Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines a Psychology Psychology is the science that seeks to measure explain and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals b Social Psychology Social psychology blends the concepts of psychology and sociology One major study is for this is change which is how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance c Sociology Sociologists study the social system in which individuals ll their roles that is sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings structure a Anthropology Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities Psychology s contributions have been mainly at the individual or micro level of analysis while the other disciplines have contributed to our understanding of macro concepts such as group processes and organization Take all different behavioral science and see how they affect the manager business 6 There Are Few Absolutes in OB There are few if any simple and universal principles that explain organizational behavior because no one is the same in any situation This is why managers must know which OB works with which situation and why in order to be the best and do the best OB is a accumulation of science evidence intuition and facts on the company The independent variable is what makes a contingency variable more true and concrete Contingency variables situational factors are variables that moderate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables Situational factors that make the main relationship between two variables change eg the relationship may hold for one condition but not another Contingency Variable Independent Variable l Dependent Variable 7 Challenges and Opportunities for OB Today s challenges bring opportunities for managers to use OB concepts These are some of the most critical issues confronting managers for which OB offers solutions MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A The difference between good and bad management can be the difference between pro t and loss or ultimately between survival and failure Responding to Economic Pressure a In economic tough times effective management is an asset b In good times understanding how to reward satisfy and retain employees is at a premium In bad times issues like stress decision making and coping come to the fore Responding to Globalization a Increased Foreign Assignments you ll have to manage a workforce very different in needs aspirations and attitudes from those you are used to back home b Working with People from Different Cultures To work effectively with people from dif ferent cultures you need to understand how their culture geography and re ligion have shaped them and how to adapt your management style to their differences Management practices need to be modi ed to re ect the values of the different countries in which an organization operates c Overseeing Movement ofJobs to Countries with LowCost Labor Managers face the difficult task of balancing the interests of their organization with their responsibilities to the communities in which they operate Managing Workforce Diversity a organizations is adapting to people who are different ls called workforce diversity work force diversity addresses differences among people within given countries b Workforce diversity acknowledges a workforce of women and men many racial and ethnic groups individuals with a variety of physical or psychological abilities and people who differ in age and sexual orientation Improving Customer Service a Today the majority of employees in developed countries work in service jobs b Employee attitudes and behavior are associated with customer satisfaction c Service jobs include technical sup port representatives fastfood counter workers sales clerks waiters and waitresses nurses automobile repair technicians consultants credit representatives nancial planners and ight attendants d The common characteristic of these jobs is substantial interaction with an organization s customers e Management needs to create a customerresponsive culture f OB can provide considerable guidance in helping managers create such cultures in which employees are friendly and courteous MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A accessible knowledgeable prompt in responding to customer needs and willing to do what s necessary to please the customer Improving People Skills Stimulating Inn ovation and Change a Successful organizations must foster innovation and master the art of change b Employees can be the impetus for innovation and change or a major stumbling block c Managers must stimulate employees creativity and tolerance for change Coping with quotTemporarinessquot a Organizations must be exible and fast in order to survive b Managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness c Workers must continually update their knowledge and skills to perform new job requirements d Learning to live and cope with exibility spontaneity and unpredictability e OB provides help in understanding a work world of continual change how to overcome resistance to change and how to create an organizational culture that thrives on change Working in Networked Organizations a Networked organizations are becoming more pronounced and communicate together b A manager s job is fundamentally different in networked organizations Challenges of motivating and leading quotonlinequot require different techniques Helping Employees Balance WorkLife Con icts a The creation of the global workforce means work no longer sleeps b Communication technology has provided a vehicle for working at any time or any place c Employees are working longer hours per week and that creates con ict and stress d The lifestyles of families have changed creating con ict and stress e Balancing work and life demands now surpasses job security as an employee priority f Organizations that don t help their people achieve work life balance will nd it increasingly difficult to attract and retain the most capable and motivated employees Creating a Positive Work Environment SAS example a Organizations have realized creating a positive work environment can be a competitive advantage b A real growth area in OB research is positive organizational scholarship also called positive organizational behavior which studies how MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A organizations develop human strengths foster vitality and resilience and unlock potential c Although positive organizational scholarship does not deny the value of the negative such as critical feedback it does challenge researchers to look at OB through a new lens and pushes organizations to exploit employees strengths rather than dwell on their limitations d The method SAS uses is called the golden handcuffs Improving Ethical Behavior a Ethical dilemmas and ethical choices are situations in which an individual is required to de ne right and wrong conduct b Good ethical behavior is not so easily de ned especially difficult in a global economy because different cultures have different perspectives on certain ethical issues c Organizations are distributing codes of ethics to guide employees through ethical dilemmas d Managers need to create an ethically healthy climate where they can do their work productively with minimal ambiguity about what right and wrong behaviors are 8 Coming Attractions Developing an OB Model gt gt gt gt gt Overview A model is an abstraction of reality a simpli ed representation of some real world phenomenon It proposes three types of variables inputs processes and outcomes at three levels of analysis individual group and organizational Notice that the model also shows that outcomes can in uence inputs in the future Inputs Inputs are the variables like personality group structure and organizational culture that lead to processes Group structure roles and team responsibilities are typically assigned immediately before or after the group is formed These variables set the stage for what will occur in an organization later Many are determined in advance of the employment relationship Processes Processes are actions that individuals groups and organizations engage in as a result of inputs and that lead to certain outcomes Outcomes Outcomes are the key variables that you want to explain or predict and that are affected by some other variables Variables of Interest Attitudes and Stress MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A a Employee attitudes are the evaluations employees make ranging from positive to negative about objects people or events b Stress is an unpleasant psychological process that occurs in response to environmental pressures c A lot of evidence shows that employees who are more satis ed and treated fairly are more willing to engage in the aboveandbeyond citizenship behavior Task Performance a The combination of effectiveness and efficiency at doing your core job tasks is a re ection of your level of task performance b Performance relate to the core duties and responsibilities of a job and are often directly related to the functions listed on a formal job description Citizenship Behavior a The discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee s formal job requirements and that contributes to the psychological and social environment of the workplace is called citizenship behavior it will provide performance beyond expectations b Evidence indicates organizations that have such employees outperform those that don t Withdrawal Behavior a Withdrawal behavior is the set of actions that employees take to separate themselves from the organization ranging from showing up late or failing to attend meetings to absenteeism and turnover b A high rate of turnover can also disrupt the efficient running of an organization c If the quotrightquot people are leaving the organization the marginal and submarginal employees turnover can actually be positive d In today s changing world of work reasonable levels of employee initiated turnover improve organizational exibility and employee independence and they can lessen the need for managementinitiated layoffs Group Cohesion a Group cohesion is the extent to which members of a group support and validate one another at work a cohesive group is one that sticks together b When employees trust one another seek common goals and work together to achieve these common ends the group is cohesive when employees are divided among themselves in terms of what they want to achieve and have little loyalty to one another the group is not cohegve c Picking the right people to be on the team in the rst place might be an effective way to enhance cohesion MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A 0 Group Functioning a Group functioning refers to the quantity and quality of a group s work output b Group functioning in work organizations is more than the sum of individual task performances c Different types of activities will be required to get the most from the team 0 Productivity a An organization is productive if it achieves its goals by transforming inputs into outputs at the lowest cost Thus productivity requires both effectiveness and efficiency b Effectiveness The degree to which an organization meets the needs of its clientele or customers c Efficiency The degree to which an organization can achieve its ends at a low cost d Popular measures of organizational efficiency include return on investment pro t per dollar of sales and output per hour of labor e By training employees to improve the employee customer interaction 0 Survival a The final outcome we will consider is organizational survival which is simply evidence that the organization is able to exist and grow over the long term b The survival of an organization depends not just on how productive the organization is but also on how well it ts with its environment APPENDIX A PowerPoint 2 0 An understanding of research methods will make you a more skilled evaluator of the OB studies you will encounter in business and professional journals So an appreciation of behavioral research is important because a 1 it s the foundation on which the theories in this text are built and b 2 it will bene t you in future years when you read reports of research and attempt to assess their value 1 Purposes of Research 0 Research is concerned with the systematic gathering of information Its purpose is to help us in our search for the truth MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A Ongoing research adds to our body of OB knowledge by supporting some theories contradicting others and suggesting new theories to replace those that fail to gain support 2 Research Process QuestionProblem Literature Review Hypotheses Research Design Data Collection and Analysis Interpretation 3 Research Terminology gt Variable A variable is any general characteristic that can be mea sured and that changes in amplitude intensity or both examples of OB variables are job satisfaction employee productivity work stress ability personality and group norms gt Hypothesis A tentative explanation of the relationship between two or more variables is called a hypothesis Until con rmed by empirical research a hypothesis remains only a tentative explanation gt Dependent Variable A dependent variable is a response that is affected by an in dependent variable In terms of the hypothesis it is the variable that the researcher is interested in explaining In organizational behavior research the most popular dependent variables are productivity absenteeism turn over job satisfaction and organizational commitment gt Independent Variable An independent variable is the presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable Popular independent variables studied by OB researchers include intelligence personality job satisfaction experience motivation reinforcement patterns leadership style reward allocations selection methods and organization design Moderating Variable A moderating variable abates the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable it is also called a contingency variable If X independent variable then Y dependent variable will occur but only under conditions Z moderating variable gt Causality A hypothesis implies a relationship That is it implies a presumed cause gt gt MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A and effect This direction of cause and effect is called causality Changes in the independent variable are assumed to cause changes in the dependent variable However in behavioral re search it s possible to make an incorrect assumption of causality when relationships are found Correlation Coef cient You need to know that there is a relationship between two or more variables AND the strength of that relationship The term correlation coefficient is used to indicate that strength and is expressed as a number between 100 a perfect negative relation ship and 100 a perfect positive correlation When two variables vary directly with one another the correlation will be expressed as a positive number When they vary inversely that is one increases as the other decreases the correlation will be expressed as a negative number If the two variables vary independently of each other we say that the correlation be tween them is zero A correlation coefficient measures only the strength of association between two variables A high value does not imply causality Theory Theory describes a set of systematically interrelated concepts or hypotheses that purports to explain and predict phenomena also frequently referred to as models There are no shortages of theories in OB Multiple theories attempting to explain common phenomena merely attest that OB is an active discipline still growing and evolving 4 Evaluation Research Caveat emptor let the buyer beware In evaluating any research study you need to ask three questions Is it valid Is the study actually measuring what it claims to be measuring Is it reliable Reliability refers to consistency of measurement Is it generalizable Are the results of the research study generalizable to groups of individuals other than those who participated in the original study 5 Research Design gt Doing research is an exercise in tradeoffs Richness of information typically comes with reduced generalizability The more a researcher seeks to control for confounding variables the less realistic his or her results are likely to be Case Study MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A Drawn from reallife situations case studies present an indepth analysis of one setting They are thorough descriptions rich in details about an individual a group or an organization The primary source of information in case studies is obtained through observation occasionally backed up by interviews and a review of records and documents Case studies have their drawbacks They re open to the perceptual bias and subjective interpretations of the observer Because it s always dangerous to generalize from a sample of one case studies make it dif cult to prove or reject a hypothesis The advantages are the indepth analysis that cases often provide excellent device for initial exploratory research and for evaluating reallife problems in organizations gt Field Survey The standardization of response items allows for data to be easily quanti ed analyzed and summarized and for the researchers to make inferences from the representative sample about the larger population The eld survey provides economies for doing research It s less costly to sample a population than to obtain data from every member of that population as the ethics study illustrates eld surveys provide an ef cient way to nd out how people feel about issues or how they say they behave These data can then be easily quanti ed Disadvantages are mailed questionnaires rarely obtain 100 percent returns Low response rates call into question whether conclusions based on respondents answers are generalizable to nonrespondents Second the format is better at tapping respondents attitudes and perceptions than behaviors Third since eld surveys are designed to focus on speci c issues they re a relatively poor means of acquiring depth of information gt Laboratory Experiment In a laboratory experiment such as that conducted by Milgram an arti cial environment is created by the researcher Then the researcher manipulates an independent variable under controlled conditions Finally since all other things are held equal the researcher is able to conclude that any change in the dependent variable is due to the manipulation or change imposed on the independent variable But because of the controlled conditions the researcher is able to imply causation between the independent and dependent variables The laboratory experiment trades off realism and generalizability for precision and control It provides a high degree of control over variables and precise measurement of those variables But ndings from laboratory MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A studies are often dif cult to generalize to the real world of work gt Field Experiment The eld experiment is similar to the laboratory experiment except it is conducted in a real organization The natural setting is more realistic than the laboratory setting and this enhances validity but hinders control The greatest concern with eld studies has to do with organizational selection bias Not all organizations are going to allow outside researchers to come in and study their employees and operations Our general conclusion is that of the four research designs we ve discussed to this point the eld experiment typically provides the most valid and generalizable ndings and except for its high cost trades off the least to get the most Aggregate Quantitative Reviews The OB Mod task performance review done by these researchers illustrates the use of metaanalysis a quantitative form of literature review that enables researchers to look at validity ndings from a comprehensive set of individual studies and then apply a formula to them to determine if they consistently produced similar results CHAPTER 3 PowerPoint 3 1 Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statements either favorable or unfavorable about objects people or events They re ect how we feel about something attitudes have three components cognition affect and behavior Cognitive component of an attitude a description of or belief in the way things are It sets the stage for the more critical part of an attitude its affective component Affect is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude and is re ected in the statement The behavioral component of an attitude describes an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something Keep in mind that these components are closely related and cognition and affect in particular are inseparable in many ways Attitudes follow behavior Festinger proposed that cases of attitude following behavior illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonance any incompatibility an individual might MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes They will seek a stable state which is a minimum of dissonance They either alter the attitudes or the behavior or they develop a rationalization for the discrepancy They can brainwash themselves by continually articulating the bene ts No individual of course can completely avoid dissonance Festinger proposed that the desire to reduce dissonance depends on moderating factors including the importance of the elements creating it and the degree of in uence we believe we have over them Individuals will be more motivated to reduce dissonance when the attitudes or behavior are important or when they believe the dissonance is due to something they can control A third factor is the rewards of dissonance high rewards accompanying high dissonance tend to reduce the tension inherent in the dissonance More recent research shows that attitudes predict future behavior and confirmed Festinger s idea that quotmoderating variablesquot can strengthen the link Moderating Variables The most powerful moderators of the attitudes relationship are the importance of the attitude its correspondence to behavior its accessibility the presence of social pressures and whether a person has direct experience with the attitude Speci c attitudes tend to predict speci c behaviors whereas general attitudes tend to best predict general behaviors overall job satisfaction would better predict a general behavior such as whether the individual was engaged in her work or motivated to contribute to her organization 8 Attitudes that our memories can easily access are more likely to predict our behavior MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A the more you talk about your attitude on a subject the more likely you are to remember it and the more likely it is to shape your behavior Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior tend to occur when social pressures to behave in certain ways hold exceptional power as in most organizations the attitude behavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if an attitude refers to something with which we have direct personal expedence Job Attitudes OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of workrelated attitudes Most of the research in OB has looked at three attitudes job satisfaction job involvement and organizational commitment Job Satisfaction When people speak of employee attitudes they usually mean job satisfaction which describes a positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement Related to job satisfaction is job involvement which measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self wo h Another closely related concept is psychological empowerment employees beliefs in the degree to which they in uence their work environment their competence the meaningfulness of their job and their perceived autonomy High levels of both job involvement and psychological empowerment are positively related to organizational citizenship and job performance High job involvement is also related to reduced absences and lower resignation rates Organizational Commitment In organizational commitment an employee identi es with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to remain a member Most research has focused on emotional attachment to an organization and belief in its values as the quotgold standardquot for employee commitment the research evidence demonstrates negative relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover Perceived Organizational Support Perceived organizational support P05 is the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their wellbeing MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A Research shows that people perceive their organization as supportive when rewards are deemed fair when employees have a voice in decisions and when they see their supervisors as supportive those more likely to think of work as an exchange rather than a moral onga on24 Employee Engagement A new concept is employee engagement an individual s involvement with satisfaction with and enthusiasm for the work she does highaverage levels of engagement had higher levels of customer satisfaction were more productive brought in higher pro ts and had lower levels of turnover and accidents than at other companies Only between 17 percent and 29 percent are highly engaged by their work the concept is relatively new and still generates active debate about its usefulness Measuring Job Satisfaction Our de nition ofjob satisfaction a positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics is clearly broad Two approaches are popular The single global rating is a response to one question such as quotAll things considered how satis ed are you with your jobquot Respondents circle a number between 1 and 5 on a scale from quothighly satis edquot to quothighly dissatis edquot The second method the summation ofjob facets is more sophisticated It identi es key elements in a job such as the nature of the work supervision present pay promotion opportunities and relationships with coworkers 32 The summation of job facets may also leave out some important data Both methods are helpful The single global rating method isn t very time consuming thus freeing time for other tasks and the summation ofjob facets helps managers zero in on problems and deal with them faster and more accurately How Satis ed Are People in TheirJobs Recent data show a dramatic dropoff in average job satisfaction levels during the economic contraction that started Research also shows satisfaction levels vary a lot depending on which facet of job satisfaction you re talking about MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A Although job satisfaction appears relevant across cultures that doesn t mean there are no cultural differences in job satisfaction What Causes Job Satisfaction Interesting jobs that provide training variety independence and control satisfy most employees But once an individual reaches a level of comfortable living the relationship between pay and job satisfaction virtually disappears Money does motivate people But what motivates us is not necessarily the same as what makes us happy Job satisfaction is not just about job conditions Personality also plays a role Research has shown that people who have positive core selfevaluations who believe in their inner worth and basic competence are more satis ed with their jobs than those with negative core selfevaluations The Impact of Satis ed and Dissatis ed Employees on the Workplace the exit voice loyalty neglect framework Exit The exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization including looking for a new position as well as resigning Voice The voice response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions including suggesting improvements discussing problems with superiors and undertaking some forms of union activity Loyalty The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism and trusting the organization and its management to quotdo the right thingquot Neglect The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness reduced effort and increased error rate Exit and neglect behaviors encompass our performance variables productivity absenteeism and turnover But this model expands employee response to include voice and loyalty constructive behaviors that allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or revive satisfactory working conditions MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A As helpful as this framework is it s quite general Job Satisfaction and Job Performance As several studies have concluded happy workers are more likely to be productive workers As we move from the individual to the organizational level we also nd support for the satisfaction performance relationship organizations with more satis ed employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer Job Satisfaction and OCB evidence suggests job satisfaction is moderately correlated with OCBs people who are more satis ed with their jobs are more likely to engage in OCBs research shows that when people are in a good mood they are more likely to engage in OCBs Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satis ed employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism We nd a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism but it is moderate to weak When numerous alternative jobs are available dissatis ed employees have high absence rates but when there are few they have the same low rate of absence as satis ed employees Job Satisfaction and Turnover The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover is stronger than between satisfaction and absenteeism Similarly job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into turnover when employment opportunities are plentiful because employees perceive it is easy to move Finally when employees have high quothuman capitalquot job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into turnover because they have or perceive many available alternatives Job Satisfaction and Workplace Deviance Job dissatisfaction and antagonistic relationships with coworkers predict a variety of behaviors organizations nd undesirable including unionization attempts substance abuse stealing at work undue socializing and tardiness Researchers argue these behaviors are indicators of a broader syndrome called deviant behavior in the workplace or counterproductive behavior or employee withdrawal MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A Workers who don t like their jobs quotget evenquot in various ways and because those ways can be quite creative controlling only one behavior such as with an absence control policy leaves the root cause untouched Managers Often quotDon t Get Itquot Given the evidence we ve just reviewed it should come as no surprise that job satisfaction can affect the bottom line Surveys are no panacea but if job attitudes are as important as we believe organizations need to nd out where they can be improved Managers don t like to improve job satisfaction Job satisfaction makes workers work harder and do better in the company A manager wants workers to have a high task performance and have a lot of outcome lf attitudes are positive they will have greater outcome towards the company Attitude has 3 components but managers don t know which to measure Cognitive affective and behavioral are the 3 components Cognitive is the opinion or belief segment of an attitude Affective is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude Behavioral is an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something Attitudes effect and in uence behavior but behavior also in uences attitudes Cognitive behavior is when the attitude is different to behavior however sometimes after a while their attitudes will change Mitigating variables Mitigating variables It depends Importance of the attitude lts correspondence to behavior lts accessibility The presence of social pressure Whether or not a person has had direct experience with the behavior The attitudebehavior relationship is stronger if it refers to something in our direct personal experience Job satisfaction is the most important and common Job involvement is because when you feel part of something and want to be involved in a lot therefore will work a lot Psychological empowerment is when someone feels like they have control over what they are doing and be able to in uence others MGT 304 QUIZZ 1 PP 1 2 3 Chapter 1 amp 3 Appendix A Organizational commitment is related to loyalty and want to stay in the company If someone is committed they will want to improve within the company Perceived organizational support P05 is when people feel they are supported when they are treated fairly and they feel valued When they feel engaged and are allowed to participate in making decisions they increase POS If the supervisors supports the team and acts supportive they will feel like they are important Employee engagement is a very new trend and is when the employee feels like you engage with them it have 3 components Employee Engagement job satisfaction job involvement enthusiasm When employee engagement is higher it means they will invest a lot more and be energetic towards work and what they do Only 1928 feel it P05 is related to employee engagement Attitudes in uence each other a lot usually managers try to use the most important Always try to have high job satisfaction and maintain employee engagement To measure job satisfaction is hard because there are so many ways One way is global rating but the problem is you don t know why or why not they are satis ed The summation ofjob facets is another way and is good because it includes different components like work itself pay promotion supervision coworkers and overall This gives an idea which to improve and to make better Some people think pay is the biggest factor that affects job satisfaction but it was proven wrong because after reaching a certain living standard you care about status power and coworkers Personality will affect job satisfaction because some people are more positive and will be more positive at work and more happy When job satisfaction is higher attitudes are more pro table such as increase job performance OCB turnover customer satisfaction


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