European Exploration HY 325-001
Popular in US World Power to 1898
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
European Exploration 0 In 15th century Spain and Portugal collectively called the Iberians were dominant in trade and colonialization 0 France and England jumped in on sea trade and colonization later 0 Sea exploration began in the 12005 and 13005 0 By early 14005 exploration had become more fully developed 0 Marco Polo 0 Italian who explored for easier routes to Asia end of 13th century 0 Traveled from Europe across Central Asia to China 0 Silk Road name of overland trade route from Europe to Asia forged by Marco Polo o Ottoman Empire 0 Conquered Constantinople I Important for trade because Constantinople was at crossroads of trade between Europe and Asia control Constantinople able to influence trade network 0 Rise of Venice and Constantinople as major trade hubs 0 These cities became middlemen in EuropeAsia trade I Caused them to accumulate economic wealth and political power 0 Causes European countries like Spain and Portugal to look for other routes to Asia to avoid these middlemen cities 0 Causes Spain and Portugal to seek trade allies with other empires I Two trade allies Asia and SubSaharan Africa 0 Alliance with African traders aids in the rise of the Atlantic slave trade 0 Technological advances in sea exploration 15005 0 Caravel fast and durable ship that could handle the rough Atlantic waters 0 Compass o Astrolabe o Technological advances from Asia that aided sea exploration 0 Printing press I Maps I Journals 0 explorers could share info record activities and shed light on voyages o Gunpowder I Led to ships being armed with guns and cannons o Shift in Europe from Medieval to Modern 0 Medieval beliefs I Knowledge was finite so look to the past to learn more about the world 0 Many scholars studied works from ancient Greece and ancient Rome 0 Modern beliefs I Knowledge is infinite and is acquired through experience rather than just through studying past accounts I Exploration seen as a way to find new truths of the world 0 In the 14005 the south of Spain was controlled by Muslims o By late 14005 Christians began campaigns to push the Muslims out of Spain O I These campaigns Reconquista gt seen as a religious holy war to unite Spain under Christian rule Marriage of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabela political move to unify Spain under one kingdom I Married in 1462 launched reconquest of Grenada in 1490s I By 1492 the last Muslim holdout in Spain surrendered Spain is effectively freed from Muslim rule Legacy of Reconquista O O Granting of an quotencomiendaquot land to soldiers who served in the army during Reconquista campaign Large standing army of now unemployed males since no more enemy to fight I These soldiers are used as shipmates on explorations the King and Queen finance later on like Columbus voyages Portugal in the 1400s 0 O Focused on sea exploration off the west coast of Africa King Henry sponsored explorations I Became known as quotHenry the Navigator I Obsessed with the legend of Prestor John 0 Christian ruler in inland Africa that King Henry wanted to ally with I Motive for exploration find access for gold quotfeitoriaquot trading post Portuguese relied on Africans to be guidesintermediaries when traveling through Africa I Africans developed into a type of middleman in the trade business Many Portuguese die from diseases while traveling through inland Africa due to tropical diseases and Portuguese lack of antibodies Atlantic slave trade 0 Sugar Portugal was first country to tap into the African slave trade I Internal slave network already existed in Africa before the arrival of Europeans Slave trade from Africa to Portugal and its outposts began in 1441 A slave at that time could be someone with a debt or a criminal I Not necessarily based on race like in the US Word slave comes from the Slavic people in the Baltic Sea area who were used as slaves I When the Ottomans captured Constantinople they cut off Slavic slaves from Western European countries so those countries had to look elsewhere for slaves they turned their sights to Africa particularly the West coast of Africa Originated as a commodity grown in India I Europeans loved it and demanded more so sugar trade grew in importance 0 Access to sugar used by upperclass Europeans as a status symbol Growth in sugar trade led to rise in slave trade as sugar is a labor intensive commodity Sugar plantations established by Europeans off the west coast of Africa I Slavetrade route 0 Europe to Africa trade European goods pick up slaves 0 Religion 0 0 Africa to plantations pick up slaves drop them off at plantations o plantations to Europe pick up sugar and sell it in European markets Pope Alexander the 6th granted the Portuguese the right to access the coast of Africa I In return the Portuguese agreed to establish missions and convert Africans Pope was interested in exploration due to its potential to bring many new people to the Christian faith Spain and Portuguese had disputes over land claims in the newly found Western Hemisphere in the late 1490s 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas I Pope divides the world in half between Spain and Portugal 0 Spain got the Western half 0 Portugal got the Eastern half 0 Christopher Columbus O 0000 0 Italian Student of Ptolemy s world view ie no Western Hemisphere Tried to get financial backing for voyages from Portugal s king fails Succeeds in getting financial backing from Ferdinand and Isabela of Spain Encounters Taino people in the Caribbean I Taino speak Arawak their enemy Caribs ppl of the Lower Antilles in Carib Columbus further explores the Caribbean particularly Hispanola Haiti Dominican Rep 0 Amerigo Vespucci 1St to publically theorize that the islands Columbus found were part of a new land mass 0 Key terms 0 O 0000 Marco Polo Silk Road Ferdinand Isabella I Encomienda I Reconquista Feitoria Christopher Columbus I Taino Arawak I Caribs I Hispaniola Amerigo Vespucci Treaty of Tordesillas Giovanni Caboto John Cabot Protestant Reformation
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