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Intro to Psychology

by: Erica Kugler

Intro to Psychology PY 105

Erica Kugler
GPA 4.0
Honors Intro Psychology
Stephen Groff

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About this Document

Notes about chapters one and two (historical overview of psychology and research methods)
Honors Intro Psychology
Stephen Groff
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 105 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stephen Groff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 222 views. For similar materials see Honors Intro Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 08/28/15
Intro to Psychology 0 PhD Doctor of Philosophy 0 Psychological science study of the mind brain and behavior 0 Mind mental activity enabled by the brain 0 Brain organ 0 Behavior observable actions Roots of Psychology 0 Psychology grew out of philosophy 0 Aristotle ancient Greek philosopher human behavior as nature vs nurture debate 0 Established as a science in 1879 o Wilhelm Wundt o Started the 1St psychology lab I Example of psychology experiments conducted reaction time experiments 0 First time a person could work towards getting an advanced degree 0 Used method of introspection when conducting experiments in order to study the mind I Introspection examination of mental experiences by inspecting and reporting one s thoughts highly subjective o 2 schools of thought 0 Structuralism I Key theme introspection I Focuses on the mind gt conscious experience can be broken down into underlying components quotstructural parts that lie within the mind 0 Understand conscious experiences by reducing them to their structural parts I Edward Titchener o Functionalism I Looks at why the brain operates as it does 0 Look at the adaptive behavior of the brain and mind 0 Best way to understand the mind is to look at its function and purpose rather than its structure I Holds that the brainmind operate for specific purposes in order to influence the human body and its behaviors I Darwinian view that the human brain and mind evolved over time I William James 0 Sigmund Freud 0 Victorian Europe 0 Believed that conflicts arise from problems in our unconscious o Psychoanalysis gt type of patienttherapist method in which the therapists attempts to have the patient bring out the contents of their unconscious in order to reveal hidden conflicts o 3 personality types I Superego conscience o in cartoons this is the angel on a person s shoulder I ID sex and aggression o Pleasure principle people will choose gratifying options don t delay gratification o in cartoons this is the devil on a person s shoulder I Ego objective 0 Reality principle decisions making weigh costs vs benefits 0 in cartoons this is the character facing a dilemma 0 Mary Calkins 1st women president of the APA American Psychological Association 0 Denied a PhD because she was a woman 0 Margaret Washburn 1St woman to receive a PhD in Psychology 0 Overall in the 1800s and early 1900s psychology was a maledominated field 0 1920s 1960s Behaviorism o BF Skinner and John Watson 0 Idea that you could only measure observable behavior I Paid little attention to people s thoughts as those aren t observable 0 Aaron Beck 0 Cognitive Therapy gt type of therapy that focuses on peoples thoughts and mind Concerned with mental functions behavior is influenced by how people think I Cognition thoughts I Cognitive psychology looks at thoughts learning and memory I Originally used to treat depression 0 Depression most common mental disorder 0 Symptoms loss of interest trouble sleeping suicidal thoughts fatigue feelings of hopelessness change in appetite Types Methods of Research 0 Naturalistic Observation 0 Observe people or object of observation in theirits natural setting 0 Problem when people know they are being watched they often act differently I May skew the accuracy of results 0 Surveys gt record of participants opinions problem people lie speed through it 0 Case Study gt look at one case to make predictions for cases with similar attributes 0 Ex FBI profilers can build profiles of criminals off of one case 0 True Experiment gt random controlled study that is strictly objective 0 quotdouble blind gt 1 random experiment 2 have someone else not you look at results 0 Because the experiment is randomcontrolled it is harder for the results to be skewed 0 Components independent variable dependent variable control and experimental groups I The experimental group receives the independent variable 0 These types of experiments show cause and effect x happened because of y o Correlational Study gt does a relationships exist between two variables 0 Positive an increase in variable x will cause an increase in variable y and vice versa for decrease I As one variable increasesdecreases the other variable also increasesdecreases both variables change in the same way by each both increasing or decreasing 0 Negative an increase in variable x will cause a decrease in variable y and vice versa for decrease in x and increase in y I As one variable increases or decreases the other variable does the opposite o Correlational coefficient measures the strength of the relationship between variables I Scale 1 to 1 0 Closer to 1 strong relationship bwn variables positive correlation o Closer to 0 littleweak relationship between variables 0 Closer to 1 opposite relationship bwn variables negative correlation 0 Unlike a true experiment Correlational studies are based more on assumptions than actual hard evidence that is obtained through trials 0 Scientific Method 0 Variable something that can varychange and can be measured I Independent variable predictor variable I Dependent variable outcome variable the results of the experiment 0 Control having things among sample groups kept exactly the same except for the independent variable 0 Extraneous variable a thing that could ruin an experiment if unaccounted for I Also called quotconfounding variable I This type of variable interferes wthe experiment s game plan 0 Statistical significance degree of experimental success 005 level good I 005 margin of error from being 100 successful so getting a 9995 success rate good Ch1 extra notes from the textbook 0 Leonardo da Vinci gt mindbody debate is mind and body separate 0 Descartes gt dualism mind and body are separate yet intertwined 0 John Stuart Mill gt believed psychology should be based on observation and experimentation 0 William James gt stream of consciousness continuous series of everchanging thoughts 0 Functionalism and Darwin evolution adaptation natural selection 0 Gestalt theory gt founded by Max Wertheimer o The whole of personal experiences is different from simply the sum of its parts 0 Perception is subjective and dependent on context I Ex two people see the same thing but their understanding of it is different 0 Social Psychology gt looks at the influence that social interactions have on people 0 Mind experience of the brain Ch2 extra notes from the textbook 0 Components of the scientific method theory hypothesis research conclusion 0 Theory explanation of how a phenomenon occurs 0 Hypothesis testable prediction about an outcome 0 Descriptive studies observational studies gt observe and record behavior of subjects 0 Naturalistic observation 0 Participant observation 0 Experiment 0 Control group 0 Experimental treatment group 0 Independentdependent variables 0 Confounding variable


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