In class notes
In class notes HES-1823-004
Popular in Scientific Principles of Health and Disease
Popular in Health Sciences
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Notetaker on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HES-1823-004 at University of Oklahoma taught by Xin Ye in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Scientific Principles of Health and Disease in Health Sciences at University of Oklahoma.
Reviews for In class notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/28/15
August 26 Intro to Health and Disease Chronic Disease Epidemiology Learning Objectives 0 Understand what constitutes being in a state of health and a state of disease 0 Know the de nition of physiology and pathology 0 Know the difference between a sign and a symptom 0 Know the de nition of a risk factor 0 Know the typical course of a chronic disease 0 Know the difference between prevalence and incidence Know what epidemiologists studies 0 Be able to identify three ways epidemiologists may analyze data What is Health 0 The World Health Organization WHO quotcompete physical mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity Google dictionary quotthe state of being free from illness or injuryquot 0 Wikipedia quotthe general condition of a person in all aspects What Factors Determine Health 0 Physical environment house community country 0 Lifestyle food choices exercise etc 0 Human biology Genetics 0 Healthcare services Physiology and Pathology 0 Physiology study of normal function Fundamental to understanding the pathology of chronic disease Study of normal functions 0 Pathology anatomic and physiologic deviations from the normal that constitutes disease study of what is not normal What is Disease 0 Disease is de ned as a pathological process having a characteristic set of signs and symptoms impairment of the normal state may effect the whole body or just parts may be cause by external factors viruses and bacteria or internal factors autoiminnine diseases Signs and Symptoms a symptom is an abnormal feeling noticed by a patient that indicated the presence of disease It is Subjective observed and not measured Ex Sore throat A sign is an objective medical fact that may be detected by a physical exam of a patient It can be measured Ex High blood pressure temperature Acute Vs Chronic Disease Acute brief or severe in effect Symptoms appear and change rapidly like the u Chronic long lasting or recurrent Develops and worsens over an extended period of time like heart disease Characteristics of Chronic Disease Risk Factor Non communicable can not be transferred from person to person Degenerative it gets worse Etiology the cause of the disease unclear or unidenti ed noncontagious origin Multiple risk factors Long latency period followed by a prolonged clinical course Doesn t resolve spontaneously Often associated with impairment and disability Complete cure unlikely a characteristic condition or behavior such as high blood pressure or smoking that increases the possibility of disease or injury Types of Risk Factors Modi able risk factors Changeable like smoking status and being overweightobese Nonmodi able rick factors not changeable such as genetic factors and physiologicmetabolic factors Course of Chronic Disease 1 2 3 4 5 Disease and Disease free state Asymptomatic biological changes symptoms are not yet detectable Morbidity clinical illness impairment and disability Comorbidity simultaneous and complex interaction of several disease at different stages of progression Mortality death Physical Activity o A normal physical activity level is the amount of physical activity obligatory for survival in a self sufficient environment 0 This high level of physical activity has shaped our normal function 0 Lack of physical activity sedentary behavior is largely responsible for the development of chronic diseases Exercise or Drugs for Treatment 0 Both exercise and drugs can be are used to treat various diseases Compared to drugs exercise is less potent but can prevent diseases 0 However the lack of a drug is not the usual cause of sickness Drugs restore function while exercise prevent activation of pathological process 0 Drugs may also produce negative side effects negative to health unlike exercise Primarv Secondarv Tertiarv Prevention 0 Primary prevention reducing incidence by eliminating causative agents before diseases ex Exercise 0 Secondary prevention detecting and correcting preclinical symptoms before overt clinical disease occurs Tertiary prevention reducing complications and morbidities of clinical disease 0 In the exam we will identify which one is which Epidemiology Epidemiology o Epidemiology is the study of the determinants occurrence distribution and control of health and disease in a de ned population used for planning and evaluating strategies to prevent illness helps guide the management of patients who have a disease Assessment of Causation How do we know what causes disease 0 Strength of association the stronger the better association does not Prove causation correlation does not equal causation Consistency of association similar relationship across multiple populations Eg smoking and lung cancer Temporality exposure precedes disease increase risk Biological gradient dose response relationship disease does an increase of possible cause increase risk of disease If you smoke more does it increase risk of lung cancer Plausibility biological possibility Does it make sense Coherence evidence control of confounding variables does drinking cause lung cancer The two are related But to determine cause you must control for smokers vs nonsmokers Incidence Rate Prevalence Mortalit incidence rate is number of new cases of a disease that develop within a speci ed period typically a year in a speci ed population it is expressed as the number of new cases of disease per year per 100000 population at risk Ex 500 cases per 342000 50034200000146 00146 X 100000 146 per 100000 people Prevalence is the total number of cases of a disease at a given time It is used as an estimate of how common a condition is within a population over a certain period of time Prevalence is a measure of all individuals affected by a disease at a particular time and it is in uenced by incidence rate and the persistence of disease Mortality is the relative frequency of deaths in a speci c population Challenges in Chronic Disease Control Monitor trends in chronic disease identify at risk group identify groups that do not respond well to intervention determining the effectiveness of prevention oriented interventions Effective communication of health risk one goal of Epidemiology is to control the disease Challenges in Chronic Disease Control reduction of health disparities in special populations poverty higher predisposition based on race crowded housing poor education poor access to health care exposure to hazardous environments racial discrimination development of supportive social and health policies increasing disability as a consequence of the progression of chronic disease Comorbidities increased rates of chronic disease and disability associated with aging of the US population Data Analysis and Interpretation Summary Person analyses distribution of disease based on characteristics such as age race gender Place analyses distribution of disease based on geographic region Time analyses distribution of disease over time Epidemiology and chronic disease Course of chronic disease Risk factor Incidence and prevalence Data analysis person place and time
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'