Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes 80489 - PSYC 2010 - 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine Notetaker on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80489 - PSYC 2010 - 002 at Clemson University taught by Jo Anne Jorgensen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
Psychology 201 Jorgensen CH 3 The Evolution of Psychology August 27 2015 Test Tips You need to know all people and dates listed in these notes From the chapter you do not need to know Stimulus Response Self Concept Law Effect From the chapter you need to understand but do not need to memorize Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Know the definitions only from figure 17 You do not need to know the statistics Chapter1 discusses many important concepts It first explains what psychology is Then it discusses the history of psychology explaining the different schools of thought and ending with the 6 theoretical perspectives Chapter 1 Ignoring the Base Rate Base Rate uumher of natural occurrences example 93 of CEOs have dogs therefore you should hire workers Who have dogs This statistic ignores the base rate percentage of nonCEOS Who own dogs and therefore is faulty What is Psychology Psychology the study of the hruz39u and its hehuvz39ors is a hard science it is not all clinical and not all about studying people s problems Empiricz39sm the theory that all conclusionsknowledge are derived om senseexperience must consist of direct observations theories must be tested psychologists never use terminology of facts or proofs psychologists don t talk in terms of values they don t look at things as being good or bad but just as being History Parents of Psychology physiology and philosophy Wlhelm quua t Father of Psychology Established rst psychology lab in 1879 in Germany Psychology 201 Jorgensen August 27 2015 G Stanley Hall Established America s rst psychology lab Psychology saw its largest growth in the United States due partly to the independence of America Schools of Thought Structuralism what analyzes consciousness into hasic elements Contains introspection careful systematic observations of one s own conscious eXperience Focus sensations images feelings Negative aspects very subjective and boring Functionalism why investigates functionspurpose of consciousness Founded by Williamj ames as he was impressed by Darwin and the idea of natural selection Focus mental testing sexual diiferences developmental patterns Neither schools of thought remain hut they led to what we have toa ay Theoretical Perspectives Theoretical Perspectives I Psychoanalysis hehavior is in uenced hy the unconscious outside of awareness Founded by Freud in the 1900s Negative aspects academia disliked because it involved little to no research lay people disliked it because was the Victorian era and they were very repressed Many concepts are now accepted by mainstream modern day psychologists believe that we are driven more by the unconscious than the conscious example racism most people are not intentionally racist 2 Behaviorism scienti c study of psychology should only focus on ohservahle hehavior Behavior any overt and observable response Founded byjohn Watson in the 1950196os believed we began with a tahula rasa or blank slate and therefore if two humans were conditioned the same way they would have matching results Chapter 1 2 Psychology 201 Jorgensen August 27 2015 BE Shinner behaviorist following Watson believed in determinism behavior is governed by the environment more nurture than nature therefore he did not believe in free will Negative aspect Dehumanizing along With psychoanalysis because the person has no control over his fate 3 Humanism focuses on eedom and personal growth an optimistic view of human nature Involves very little research 4 Cognitive Psychology hased on cognition oi the mental processes involved with acquiring lenowledge Founded in the 1950s Surpassed behaviorism in the 1970s 5 Biological focuses on physiological processes and hrain chemistry Founded in the 1950s and 1960s Includes study of neurotransmitters mindbody behavior and biological processes 6 Evolutionary study of adaptive value for species over the course of generations Based on Darwin s survival of the fittest Which is all about reproduction and genes that are passed on example men are better hunters than women because as cave men they had to hunt for food in order to keep themselves and their families alive men Who were successful in staying alive passed on their genes While the bad hunting genes died out along With the bad hunters Negative aspect A lot of these theories are untestable and post hoc meaning psychologists make assumptions after the fact or assume correlations after they see results Chapter 1 3
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