Lecture 1 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology
Lecture 1 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology APK3110c
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Adams on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to APK3110c at Florida State University taught by Dr. Robert Moffatt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 307 views.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 Metabolism the process of breaking down the foodenergy you consume catabolic process when you take fuels that store energy and break it down releasing the energy to produce work AND taking energy from things we consume or things we have in the body to build something new anabolic process taking energy creating new proteins reassembling amino acids to make proteins l muscle repair o Is the sum total of these two processes catabolic and anabolic Energy the capacity to do work Work the process where we are able to exert force over a distance doesn t always have to be physical Forms of Energv Heat Energy comes from the sun formation or breaking down bonds metabolizing fuels Ex walking around campus you feel heat not only from the sun but also metabolizing fuels 0 Chemical Energy Food that we consume that stores energy CC bonds CP bonds when broken down produce energy Example Glucose Nuclear Energy Comes from the sun light energy or solar energy 0 Mechanical Energy potential and kinetic energy storedmechanical energy the potential to do work allows the muscles to contract 0 Electrical Energy electrical center that comes from higher centers that tells your heart to beat nerve impulses to allow you to move your ngers 0 Transformation of Energy ALL FORMS OF ENERGY ARE INTERCONVERTABLE Exercise Physiology matter of transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy Energy Diagram 0 Nuclear Energy comes from the sun translates to Solar Energy which then translates to UV Light or Light Energy 0 On this Earth we have plants water etc The light energy sheds its rays upon plants and creates Chemical Energy 0 In the consumption of foods we are able to take in Chemical Energy which is then stored in the form of carbs fats and proteins in the body 0 We then break it down using Mechanical Energy Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 Photosynthesis occurs and produces oxygen With the help of stored foods and oxygen we can do things ex metabolize do work etc 0 Doing work then results in taking chemical energy and transforming it into mechanical energy allowing us to perform some effort with the presence of oxygen With doing this we produce carbon dioxide and water 0 C02 then allows plants to make more fuels and make more oxygen Nuclear Energy sun l Solar 39 Light Sheds rays across plants 39 Chemical plants A b coz V Mechanical 4 CH0 02 FAT PROTEIN A V us gt WORK ATP Adenosine Pi Pi Pi triphosphate The energy stored in these bonds can be drawn upon to do work 0 When we hydrolyze this ATP reversible reaction we get ATPase ATP lt gt ADP Pi Energy allows work Took the chemical energy in ATP released it converted it into mechanical energy WORK some heat energy is released as a result of this Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 ATP is produced in the mitochondria powerhouse of the cell l where we can produce vast amounts energy but requires oxygen to do that doesn t need oxygen to be degraded or hydrolyzed anaerobic process reaction is one simple step occurs very quickly Myosin ATPase helps with providing a substantial amount of energy immediately and helping it all to occur in one step ATP is locatedstored in the cytoplasm of the cell close proximity to the myo laments contractile proteins that allows the muscle to contract some small amount is produced in the krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria anaerobic provides energy quickly but doesn t sustain it for long close proximity needs oxygen to replenish it Don t have that much ATP lasts for 23 secs other energy storage forms donate energy since ATP doesn t last very long Creatine Pi creatine phosphate When we hydrolyze ATP we create energy phosphorous ow and we create ADP The cells monitor the ratio of ATP to ADP CK is regulated by CK the ADPATP ratio Creatine Pilt gt Cr Pi Energy When the ADP levels get high or ATPADP ratio gets out of whack the system knows very quickly there is a demand for energy so creatine kinase enzyme is activated breaking the bonds between Cr and Pi creating more energy allows us to perform another several seconds of work this energy is then involved in muscle contraction ATP and CP are used for immediate energy systems Cr Pi like ATP is also stored in close proximity to contractile elements lts another simple one step reaction and anaerobic in nature But there really isn t enough Cr Pi either Coupled with ATP you can probably get only a hard maximum 12 sec of effort 1 Mammy modulation Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 Both sources of CP and ATP r run out of energy pretty fast ATP slime m l But a combination of the mm 5yfmquotl two helps us form an amazing array of efforts such as sprinting or powerlifting E seat 11153 E miin E hrs Primary Concern How can we replenish ATP Chemical energy being converted into mechanical energy in the form of work in the muscles has to come from the derogation of ATP Anaerobic Glycolysis Lactic Acid System occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell because anaerobic Glycolysis breaking down glucose to make more ATP don t need oxygen to do that o 2 places to draw glucose from Liver glycogen stored to maintain blood glucose and Muscle can be taken into the muscle cell and subjected to the glycolytic process 0 Every molecule of glucose from the blood going into the cells cost about 1 ATP The glucose will then be stored as glycogen The glycogen stored in the liver can then be released into the bloodstream and travel to other tissues that need it 0 But glucose from the muscle is different lts already there and has been paid for to get it across the cell in ATPs It will then be stored in the cell as glycogen Once it s in there it cannot get back out because there is no enzyme to help It is then used for metabolic processes that occur in the muscle Glu Glu Glu Glu Say we break this bond we then start to engage in the Anaerobic Glu Glu Processes 0 Then goes through a series of steps to result in pyruvate Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 0 Glycogenolysis carving off one monomer glucose 6 C in length at a time Anaerobic Glycolysis end product lactic acid 0 Took a 6 carbon molecule and cleaved it in half to form a 3 carbon molecule 0 Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell 0 Primary concern To take whatever substrate we have available that enables us to continue to perform work in a long term basis to release energy so we can take that energy from the derogation of this 1 mole of glucose to allow ADP and Pi to be coupled to form ATP 1 mol 2 mol ATP Glucose Lactate 6 C Mg 3 C gt High Energy Energy State PFK inducible enzyme to increase or reduce reactivity of the enzyme Gatekeeper enzyme if you don t instigate its actions or don t have enough of the ingredients it could inhibit the glycolytic process 0 Key enzyme in the whole process 0 Levels of ADP PH etc act on the enzyme to turn reaction on or off If we don t have the availability of oxygen anaerobic the NADH is used to reduce the pyruvate to then create lactic acid l Acids interfere with the PH balance Occurs in the CYTOPLASM of the cell 1 ATP Blood Glycogen ATP n ADP I 6 c Glucose gt Glucose6Phosphate Entry point into the glycolytic pathway When we are functioning I anaerobical y this DOES NOT occur Wher you are doing an V all out inte se run you are not Fructose6 Phosphate 391 ATP drawing glu ose from the blood PFK V ATP I ADP ONLY when ou shift to more aerobic Lecture 1 Notes Exercise Physiology 82715 type work that this occurs Fructose 16 Diphosphate Phosphorous on the I 1st and 3rd C V 3Phosphoglyceraldehyde Phosphate on the 3rd C of 2 3C molecules OxidationReduction reaction I I NAD I NADH V V 13 Diphosphoglycerate I I ADP ATP 2 V V I 3 Phosphoglycerate One Phosphorus has been removed V V Phosphoenolpyruvate I I ADP n ATP f3 END PRODUCT Pyruvate I I I NADH Lactic Acid If the blood transfers in the glucose it will cost 1 ATP so the total would then be 2 ATP