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Week One Physiology Notes

by: Gina Wahl

Week One Physiology Notes PE 220

Marketplace > Indiana State University > Science > PE 220 > Week One Physiology Notes
Gina Wahl
GPA 4.0
Human Physiology Allied Health Professions

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About this Document

These are the notes from the week of lecture 8/24
Human Physiology Allied Health Professions
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gina Wahl on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PE 220 at Indiana State University taught by TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology Allied Health Professions in Science at Indiana State University.


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Date Created: 08/28/15
PE 220 CHAPTER 1 What is physiology The science relating to the body s function and structure and how these change with changes in health What is science Information that is gathered using structured and standardized methods Where does science come from The only source of peer reviewed publications amp some textbooks Peerreviewed publications are scrutinized by other experts in the eld and cannot be published without meeting the reviewers level of satisfaction with the methods and presentation of the data How do we organize the body s structures 0 Organelles make up cells 0 Cells 0 Neurons 0 Muscle fibers cells 0 Epithelial cells 0 Connective tissue cells 0 Tissues 0 Organs 0 Organ systems e g cardiovascular system 0 Organism How does the body regulate its functions 0 Homeostasis O Homeo homo Gr same 0 Stasis statecondition or state 0 Homeostasis is the maintenance of physiological factors Within an acceptable range No body system is EVER constant Negative feedback loop the outcome of a process shuts down that process eatingsweating Positive feedback loop the outcome stimulates the process heart attack Chapter 2 Sugar theYoutube video Biomolecules Four basic types Carbohydrates composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen Three types Monosaccharides Glucose good Fructose bad unless you need quick calories Galactose neutral product such as milk or dairy Note the hydroxyl groups These make carbohydrates polar Three different monosaccharides With the same chemical formula C6H1206 Disaccharides know examples of them and how thev are dee Sucrose Glucose Fructose Lactose Galactose Glucose Polysaccharides Glycogen Released from the pancreasliver and muscle glycogen Example If you don t eat your body goes to your muscles and then if you use all muscle glycogen it goes to your liver to use liver glycogen marathon runner gt Add water to get more and that process is called hydrolysis must need glucose for this to happen Li ids Composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon atoms Not water soluble Nonpolar covalent bonds Hydrophobic fear of water molecules Five classes 1 Triglvceride glvcerol three fattv acids 0 Glycerol threecarbon alcohol 0 Fatty acid long carbon acid chain Saturated fatty acids no double carbon bonds Unsaturated fatty acids transopposite or cissame 0 Fatty acid chains Nonpolar Hydrophobic 2 Ketone 0 In diabetes or lowcarbohydrate diets KETONES ARE BAD FOR DIABETICS Hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipose tissue Free fatty acids released in blood Some free fatty acids converted to ketones by the liver Acetoacetic acid acetone Buildup ketosis ketoacidosis Acetone breath 3 Phosnholipids 0 Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules Polar head hvdrophilic Nonpolar tail hydrophobic Reaction of Phospholipids With water creates unique structures Surfactant Phospholipids in the lungs that prevents lung collapse 4 Eicosanoids 0 Modified fatty acids that function in intracellular communication 0 Derived from arachidonic acid 0 Examples Prostaglandins amp Thromboxane 5 Steroids 0 All steroids are derived from cholesterol 0 Examples Estrogen Testosterone Aldosterone 6 Proteins 0 Polymers chemical chain of amino acids Amino Acids building blocks of proteins 20 different kinds of amino acids YOU CAN T HAVE A PROTEIN WITHOUT AMINO ACIDS Peptides few of amino acids held together by a peptide bond Center of amino acid is carbon carbon likes to form 4 bonds Amino group positive charge LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE primary order of amino acids secondary alphahelix betapleated sheet tertiaryElsecondary folds up bends and loops onto each otherionic bonds Van Der Waals Forces H bonds OOOOOO Covalent bonds disruption of bondsdenaturation quaternary 7 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids 0 Nucleotide structure 0 Phosphate groups 0 Five carbon carbohydrate ribose amp deoxyribose O Basecontaining carbonnitrogen ring 0 Pyrimidines cytosine thymine uracil O Purines adenine guanine EnergyTransferring Nucleotides Adenosine ditriphosphate ADPATP Adenineribose2 or 3 phosphates Adenine ribose adenosine Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD O FlaVin adenine dinucleotide FAD O O O 0 Cyclic Nucleotides 0 Form a ring with the phosphate group 0 cAMP and CGMP are messenger molecules Nucleic Acids Store and Express the Genetic Code 0 Nucleic acids Polymers of Nucleotides DNA stores genetic code amp RNA needed for expression of genetic code ILA Carbohydrate deoxyribose m Purines Adenine A Guanine G Pyrimidines Cytosine C Thymine T Double stranded Helix LaW of complementary base pairing AT CG ILA Sugar ribose 328i Purines Adenine A Guanine G Pyrimidines Cytosine C Uraci1 U


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