Week 1 Notes Psychology
Week 1 Notes Psychology Psych 1301
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Randolph Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 291 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
Psychology Chapter 1 and Lecture Notes First week notes Good Luck 0 Thinking critically with psychological science 0 The need for psychological science 0 Humans cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense 0 Hindsight bias 0 Overconfidence 0 See patterns in random events 0 Did we know it all along 0 Hindsight bias 0 Tendency to believe after learning an outcome 0 That we could have predicted it 0 Also known as the I knew it all along phenomenon o The limits of intuition and Common Sense 0 Overconfidence 0 People tend to think they know more than they do 0 This occurs in academic and social behavior 0 Perceiving order in random events 0 People perceive patterns to make sense of their world 0 Even in random unrelated data people often see an order because sequences often don t look random 0 People trust their intuition but this is flawed 0 The Scientific Attitude o Curiosity 0 Includes reason to explore and know the world withoutbeing misleading 0 Ask questions 0 Thinking critically o A more careful style of thinking not using intuition o Helps with developing more better ways to figure out what people do think and feel 0 Skepticism 0 You can disagree when you believe in it or when you see it ism flawed 0 But you make be able to back up argument 0 Humility o Involves awareness that mistakes are possible and willingness To be surprised 0 One of psychology39s early mottos The rat is always o If you39re scienceing right you39re gonna be wrong sometimes 0 Scientific Method 0 Scientific method is the process of testing ideas about the world by 0 Setting up situations that that test our ideas 0 Making careful organized observations 0 Analyzing whether the data fit with our ideas 0 Data does not fit modify data o It is a constant circle Theory Psychology Chapter 1 and Lecture Notes First week notes Good Luck Hypothesis Operational definition Replication 0 Testing hypothesis and refining theories 0 Despcriptive research is a systematic objective observation of people 0 Goal is to provide a clear accurate picture of peoples behaviors thoughts and attributes 0 Correlation 0 General Definition an observation that two traits or attributes are related to each other corelated 0 Scientific definition a measure of how closely two factors vary together or how well you can predict a change in one from observing 0 Correlation coefficient 0 How does change with x affect y o Mag btw 0 100 o The closer to 100 the stronger the relationship is o Direction to 0 Negative x goes up y goes down this is telling us how it works inverse function 0 Positive x goes up y goes y up 0 Research strategies Regression toward the mean 0 Illusory correlation o Refers to the perception of a relationship between two variables when only a minor or no relationship actually exist 0 May be fed by regression toward the mean 0 Regression toward the mean 0 The tend top fall back towards the mean 0 Correlation and Causation o No matter how strong the relationship correlation does not 0 possible cause and effect relationships 0 People low in self esteem are more likley to report depression than are those in self esteem One possible explanation of this negative correlation is that a bad self image causes depressed feelings But as the diagram indicates other cause effect relationship possible 0 Research Strategies experimentation 0 With experiments researchers can focus on the possible effects of one or more factors in several ways 0 Manipulating the factors of interest to determine their effects 0 Holding constant quotcontrollingquot other factors 0 Experimentation 0 Double blind procedure eliminating bias 0 Neither those in the study nor those collecting the data know which group is receiving the treatment 0 Treatment39s actual effects can separated from potential placebo effect Psychology Chapter 1 and Lecture Notes First week notes Good Luck 0 Placebo effect 0 Effect involves results caused by expectation alone 0 Variables Independent variables in an experiment Factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied Confounding Variable Factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect Dependent Variable Factor that is measured the variable that may change when the independent Variable is manipulated 0 Comparing Research Methods Tables review 0 Protecting Research Participants Studying and Protecting Humans o Ethic codes of APA Britiains BPS and university ethics committee IRB 0 Obtain potential participants informed consent before the experiment Protect them from harm Keep info about person confidential Fully debrief people explain the research afterward 0 Any point in time the person can stop the experiment 0 Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life Describing Data 0 Accurate statistical understanding is important 0 Measures of central tendency includes a single score that represents a set of scores Mode Mean Median 0 Variation tells us how spread out scores are from the central tendency mean median mode 0 Variability measure of how much data points differ from each other 0 Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution 0 Standard deviation a standardized calculation of the average distance score from the mean
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