Food and Agricultural Chemistry
Food and Agricultural Chemistry 300
Popular in Food and Agricultural Chemistry
Popular in Agricultural & Resource Econ
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haleigh Bruce on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 300 at Missouri State University taught by Walker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Food and Agricultural Chemistry in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Missouri State University.
Reviews for Food and Agricultural Chemistry
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 08/28/15
Food and Agricultural Chemistry Week1 Notes A Organic Chemistv Study of the compounds of carbon a Organic compounds are everywhere B Elements are the simplest types of matter C Review a Atoms Smallest units of matter that can undergo chemical change b Nucleus contains i Protons Positive charge ii Neutrons No charge iii Electrons Negative charge 1 Positives and Negatives attract D Shells around the nucleus a First shell contains 2 electrons Second shell contains 8 electrons b Valence Electrons Electrons in the outer orbital participate in chemical reactions if orbital is incomplete o o Shells n3 C n2 n1 Nucleus Wag o O 0 g o o o o o o o o 0 iv Protons Neutrons Q Electrons n Energy Levels n 1 2 3 4 Shells around the nucleus are occupied by electrons E Electron Configuration of Atoms a The configuration is a description of the orbitals the electrons in the atom occupy b Rule 1 Orbitals fill in order of increasing energy from lowest to highest c Rule 2 Each orbital can hold up to two electrons with their spins paired Spin pairing means that each electron spins in the opposite direction of its pannen d Rule 3 When orbitals of equivalent energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fill them completely then we add one more electron to each equivalent orbital F Lewis Structures a Outmost shell of the atoms are focused on because electrons in this shell are the ones involved in the formation of chemical bonds i Valence Electrons Electrons in the valence shell of an atom outermost area 1 These electrons are used in forming chemical bonds ii Valence Shell The outermost electron shell of an atom iii Lewis structure of an atom The symbol of an element surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of electrons in the valence shell of the atom Elements that are most commonly used in this class G Formation of Ions a Tendency of atoms to react in ways that achieve an outer shell of eight valence electrons i Octet Rule The tenedency among atoms of Group 1A7A elements to react in ways that achieve an outer shell of eight valence electrons b Atoms with almost eight electrons have higher need and tendency to gain the needed electrons Atoms on the other scale of things with few electrons have a low tenedency to fulfill the eight electrons i Anion An atom or group of atoms bearing a negative charge 1 ln gaining electrons an atom becomes an anion ii Cation An atom of group of atoms bearing a positive charge 1 ln losing one or more electrons the atom becomes a cation H Formation of Chemical Bonds a Atoms acquire completed valence shells in two ways i An atom may lose or gain enough electrons to acquire a filled valence shell The atom that gains the electron becomes and anion and the atom that loses the election and or electrons becomes a ca on 1 lonic Bond A chemical bond between an anion and a cation ii An atom may share electrons with one or more other atoms to acquire a filled valence shell 1 Covalent Bond A chemical bond resulting from the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons iii Examples 1 Of an ionic bond NaCl 2 Of a covalent bond H20 CH4 l Electronegativity and Chemical Bonds a Electronegativity A measure of the force of an atoms attraction for electrons it shares in a chemical bond with another atom i Electronegativity generally increases from left to right within a period and from bottom to top within a group 121 AI 35 r 16 16 a V Cr Mn Po Co Ni Cu 21 Go Go I Kr 16 16 15 16 19 18 19 16 16 18 y 7 Nb 11o Tc i 1 ca 111 811 8b x 16 16 19 t M I 19 17 17 19 19 fig 9 1 J 39 391 w Re 113 3911 1 11 111 11 15 17 19 I 19 13 16 19 b Electronegativity helps classify covalent bonds into two categories nonpolar and polar i Nonpolar covalent bond A covalent bond between atoms whose difference in electronegativity is less than 05 ii Polar covalent bond A covalent bond between atoms whose difference in electronegativity is between 05 and 19 Classification of Chemical Bonds Less than 05 Nonpolar Covalent Two nonmetals or a nonmetal and a metalloid 05 to 19 Polar Covalent Two nonmetals or a nonmetal and a metalloid Greater than 19 lonic A metal and a nonmetal NOTE This isn t all of Chapter 1 this is just week one of notes