Week Two Notes: Pre-Colombian and Spanish Caribbean
Week Two Notes: Pre-Colombian and Spanish Caribbean History 370
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 370 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. J. McCarthy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see History of the Caribbean in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
Week Two Notes PreColombian and Spanish Caribbean Katie Albritton Study Soup Geography regions definitions Islands Greater Antilles Cuba Jamaica Hispa ola Puerto Rico Lesser Antilles Leewards Sheltered side Windwards Wind coming toward you Bahamas Turks and Caicos Curcao etc ABC Margarita Central America Caribbean region Spanish Main Guianas considered Caribbean Greater Antilles the most populous Topography Continental Cuba Jamaica Espa ola Puerto Rico Trinidad Good soil for crop production High islands More mountainous volcanic St Lucia Martinique Dominica Monseratt Low islands Barbados Cragao Bonaire Aruba Antigua Lack of rainfall Natural resources Petroleum Trinidad Venezuela Bauxite for Aluminum Jamaica Clay Barbados Timber Guianas Limestone Jamaica Sugar Transplanted from Cyprus to Brazil Cuba Barbado Jamaica Martinique Coffee Transplanted from Mocha and Aden Haiti Jamaica Bananas St Lucia Spices Most transplanted from S E Asia Grenada St Vincent Ocean Currents North Atlantic Gyre Sargasso Sea Seaweed Bermuda Triangle Caribbean Sea is calm protected by the islands Clockwise currents north Counterclockwise currents south Guinea Current crosses the Atlantic Caribbean Current East to West along South American coast Yucatan Current Out ow Devides begins Florida Current and the Loop Current Gulf of Mexico Loop Current Passages St Lucia Several passages Leeward passages Windward passage between Haiti and Jamaica Mona passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic Weather and climate Tropical climate Temps moderated by trade winds Little uctuation Cooler in the mountains Little air polution Rainy season Summer Dry season Winter Hurricanes June through November Most pass across Leewards and Greater Antilles Clean water Long lived people Impoverished populations cannot do much about the hurricanes Island peoples Our sources of information Archaeology Bartolome de las Casas c 14841566 Brief Acount 0f the Devastation 0f the Indes 1542 Father Ramon Pane Relacio n Acerca de las Antigiiedades d los Indios Tries to describe the religion of the natives Accompanied Columbus on his second voyage 1493 Documents in Barreiro39s Taino Huge question PreColombian population Settlement of the islands Among last settlements from Asian migration Also came from South America From Yucatan Meet in Leewards Puerto Rico Boriquen Later in ux from S America 500 BCE Became Arawak Taino Arawak language Taino place W Cuba Ciboney tech Guanahatabey NonTaino Later to Jamaica Bahamsa 600 CE Caribs later in ux from S America 1200 CE Spanish comments on first encounter Gentle Arawak Naked feathered some gold jewelry Generous timid reed spears Warn the Spaniards about the hostile Caribs Columbus forbids men from cheating them in trade Like most European and Spanish commentaries Primitive Savage UnChristian SocioPolitical Organization At peak possible 8 million on Haiti Classic Taino Haiti E Cuba Puerto Rico Series of village communities Some hierarchy not much Chief Cacique might rule 300000 In charge of marriages fishing hunting SubCacique Taino Comparatively af uent Peaceful overall Raided by Caribs sometimes Circular thatched huts Surround irregular central plaza Burials then ball games then ceremonies Archaeologist Irving Rouse comment Predemocratic Bodies Adornment Near nudity Always freaks Europeans out Ceremonial adomments Headdresses Regular adornments Some cotton fabrics manufactured Breechclouts skirts Jewelry Piercings nose lips ears Europeans comment on good musculature Agriculture food Earliest known hunted large sea mammals Manatees seals turtles Overhunted but not gone Eventually smaller examples remain Large land animals Sloths anteaters hunted to extinction Smaller animals Rodents bats snakes Develop method of barbecue Horticulture Conuco large amount of soil piled up Beans peppers Plantains Sweet potatoes Coconuts Cassava Made into bread Poisonous if not prepared correctly Pepper pots Hot pots Stewed meats and peppers Social and Material Life Large families some Polygamy Sleep in hammocks some woven chairs Stone tools Ceramic bowls and cooking utensils Drinking gourds Ball games Rubber ball Don39t let it hit the ground Men and women Competitions between villages Tobacco Used popularly and ceremoniously Trade and Travel No beasts of burden or wheels Boat travel Streams lakes coastal travel Dugout canoes made of wood Some currents and passages were dangerous Religion Component of everyday life Rather than formal ceremonial Cogent explanation of everyday world Increased ca 1200need to connect rulers to ancestors Shamans Behiques Some act as healers Zemis large and small household gods Statues Often for fertility Many destroyed by Spaniards Song and dance Bats significant as spirits of the nonliving Caves as connection to the underworld Creation of women story First women were sticks with holes in them created by a woodpecker for men to use for sexual relief Caribs Reputed to be cannibals Population nearly wiped out Disease killed most Mainly Smallpox Spain Long North African Rule Af uent part of the Islamic world Reconquista Conviencia 1492 Militarism Real men don39t have to do physical labor Religious suspicion of nonCatholics Racism Suspicious of peoples with darker skin tones Machismo Homophobia and Sexism Castile emerges as the strongest kingdom Isabel wins civil war in 1469 1492 Granada Last outpost of Islamic rule defeated Jews expelled in April Columbus supported Expand commercial activity Cristobal Colon Genoese Some Portuguese claim he was Portuguese Father a draper Service in Genoese navy Not documented Shipwrecked off Portugal Lived in Madeira an island off Portugal Traveled to Thule Island Enterprise of the Indes Sail west to get east Approach J oao II Henry VII Louis XII Rebuffed then supported by Isabel Gets a nice deal Viceroy same for his heirs 10 of profits Amazing that she agreed First voyage 14921493 Funded by Isabel and the Pinzons Sailed from San Lucar in August Columbus as adelantado In charge of the voyage and exploration Two logbooks Lied about how close to Spain they were to the men Land spotted 12 October 1492 San Salvador Bahamas InteractionExploration Notes friendliness Noble savage idea Warned to avoid the Caribs Explores the North Coast of Cuba Settlement established at Isable Espa ola Santa Maria scuttled leaking Wrote ahead to Isabel Brought Indians to court Hero rich Isabel does not want to Indians to be enslaved Columbus39 2rld through 4th voyages 2nd 14931496 Large eet 17 ships Cuba Jamaica moved original settlement returned with Indians for slaves Isabel says no and makes him take them back 3rd 14981499 Coast of S America Amerigo Vespucci realizes it is a new continent Columbus never admits it Colonists in revolt Columbus arrested and sent to Spain prison 4th 15021504 Trying to save reputation Central American coast Hurricanes Marooned at Jamaica Settlements at Espa ola St Domingo Looking for gold go up into the mountains Indians as helper Spaniards work as well Disaffection at north coast settlements Settlers from Santo Domingo 1496 Frustration anger Columbus arrested 1499 Nepostic bad leader bad conditions Ramon Pane documents Arawak society Nicolas de Ovando as governor 1502 Brought 2500 settlers Cattle pigs goats too hot for sheep Citrus fruits sugar bananas Establishes encomienda repartimimto Tainos beginning to die Encomienda Land grant work from tenants Repartimiento Labor you need for public works Authorizes further exploration conquest Puerto Rico Cuba Jamaica Panama Audiencia established 1511 Core government body of colonies Judicial and legislative Puerto Rico Boriquen Juan Ponce de Leon as adelantado Sailed from St Domingo to Puerto Rico in 1509 Fierce resistance fighting Fierce repercussion from the Spaniards Indian population 30000 gt 4000 Established encomienda Ranching sugar production Some mining quickly exhausted Reading of the Requirement Most colonists return to Espa ola J PL to la Florida 1513 Fountain of Youth Ginseng No Florida settlemt until 1565 St Augustine Jamaica Cuba Juan de Esquivel 1509 Cruel conquest used Mastiff dogs No precious metals Agricultural colony Ranching Virtually all indigenes dead in ten years time Most colonists to Mexico or Cuba Almost vacant Makes British conquest easy in 1655 Huge land mass Columbus hoped it was Asia Nicolas de Ovando sponsored circumnavigation on 1509 Diego Varquez de Cuellar 1511 Cruel conquest Described by las Casas Capital at Santiago Many Indians ed to the interior slave raids to smaller islands Encomienda 1513 Gold discovered 1512 quickly exhausted West virtually abandoned as Spaniard go to Mexico La Habana maintained as excellent harbor for trade Mexico Hernan Cortes from Cuba to Yucatan Maya civilization in abeyance Hears of mainland across the gulf 1519 lands in Vera Cruz burns his ships March toward central valley La Malinche Helped With translation and became his Wife Locals Willing to rebel against the Aztecs Rapture at seeing Tenochtitlan Chronicle of Bemal Diaz del Castillo Montezuma invites them into the city Noche Triste Sad Night Spaniards expelled City reconquered in 1522 Spaniards believe they are invincible Cortes builds ships at Guatulco seeks to continue to China Saavedra Expedition 1527 Meantime Magellan has sailed Cortes Viceroy until roughly 1533 Silk industry labor intensive Priests help natives burn the Mulberry trees planted to attract silkworms Many Spaniards go to Mexico Panama Initial exploration by Columbus Some contact since 1509 opposed by Indians Remnant settled at Darien Nunez de Balboa usurps governorship in 1513 Had heard of Peru South Sea Short but difficult crossing Orincoc Region The Quest for El Dorado Legend of El Dorado the Gilded Man A person not a city Seeking mines of Solomon Mexico City confirms wealth Lope de Aguirre expedition 15601561 Violent but successful Cabeza de Vaca Lost in Mexico Treatment of the natives Labor of Indians Spanish society Racial hierarchy Commerce Monopoly declared 1527 Only Castillians Caribbean neglected after the discovery of Mexico This is the end of these notes I hope they are useful to you Thank you
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