Notes for Chapter 3 of ARQ
Notes for Chapter 3 of ARQ HNRS 2010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Clark on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNRS 2010 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dawn Shinew in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Critical Thinking in OTHER at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
Asking the Right Questions Chapter 1 The Benefit and Manner of Asking the Right Questions Others insist we must do what they tell us we should do They tell us halftruths to get us to believe them People only tell us the Pro s not the Con s We must assert rational control of our beliefs and conclusions Awareness of a set of interrelated critical questions Ability to ask and answer these questions in an appropriate manner Desire to actively use the critical questions React critically to an essay textbook Write an essay based on a reading website etc assignment Judge the quality of a lecture or speech Participate in class Form an argument A common approach to thinking is similar to the way a sponge soaks up water A less common approach but the one we should all be using is panningforgold which stresses active interaction with knowledge as it is being acquired The best way to be an active reader and listener is to always ask questions for all purposes The use of critical thinking to defend your current beliefs The use of the same skills to evaluate all claims and beliefs especially your own Another way to think of this distinction is to contrast open and closedmindness They can be The basis of facts opinions and conclusions These are all shaped by your values of those around you People and society shape how we view and build our opinions p x Ideas that someone thinks are worthwhile Provide standards of conduct by which we measure the quality of human behavior The values that hold the most importance and have a major in uence on one s choices We value important people a concrete idea because we values status an abstract idea Our normal tendency to listen only to those with similar value priorities we have to fight this tendency Curiosity Autonomy Humility Respect As a Critical Thinker we must always act with confidence but leave room for the question Might I be wrong Critical thinking is a social activity We need to consider how others will react to out questions In critical thinking an argument is a very different term A combination of two forms of statements a conclusion and reasons allegedly supporting it The partnership between the two establishes a person s argument Make it clear to the other person that you simply want to learn and not spark a con ict Verbal Strategies 1 Did I hear you say to clarify your 5 Try to come together to find a understanding conclusion both could embrace 2 Is there any evidence that would change 6 Search for common values to find the your mind disagreement s blast point 3 Suggest a break to find the very best 7 As the discussion heats up remember evidence to support respective sides of you are a learner not a warrior th t C argumen 8 Remain humble in body language 4 Why do you think my evidence is too weak Maintain a friendly environment for communication It is easier to shoot down a hard question that to consider and respond to it The more hostile the environment the easier it is for arguments to turn into con icts As questions become more persistent the person is more likely to become defensive and end the argument Asking the Right QHBStiOIlS Chapter 3 What are the Issue and the Conclusion Before we evaluate someone s reasoning we must first find it People who are trying to change your perceptions or beliefs create Web pages Editorials Magazine articles Blogs Books Speeches The issue is generally the controversy in the person s persuasive effort The conclusion is generally the thesis in the person s persuasive effort Require answers attempting to describe the way the world was is or is going to be Key words Does What 13 These are commonly found in Textbooks The Internet Magazines Television These raise questions about the accuracy of descriptions of the past present or future Require answers suggesting the way the world ought to be Key words Should What ought to be done Must Social controversies are often these kinds of issues These issues are ethical or moral Issues can be explicitly stated and will be indicated by phrases such as The question I am raising is Is it the right thing to do Should Unfortunately the question is not always explicitly stated Instead must be inferred from other clues in the communication One simple question that will often suggest the central issue of a communication is What is the author reacting to Check background information about the author as you try to determine the issue Try to resist that there is only one correct way to state the issue Make certain that what you are calling issue meets that definitional criteria that define an issue In many cases the conclusion must be found before you can identify the issue We cannot critically evaluate until we find both parts of the argument Look for indicator words like Consequently Suggests that Therefore Thus It follows that The point I am trying to make is Shows that Proves that Indicates that The truth of the matter is Asking these questions will often lead to the conclusion What is the writer or speaker trying to prove What is the communicator s main point The basic structure of persuasive communication or argument is This because of That This refers to the conclusion That refers to the support for the conclusion This structure also represents the process of inference Unsupported claims are what we call opinions Clue No 1 Ask what the issue is Clue No 2 Look for indicator words Clue No 3 Look in likely locations Clue No 4 Remember what a conclusion is not Clue No 5 Check the context of the communication and the author s background When we write we often feel our meaning is crystal clear Our argument is perfectly clear to us Unfortunately our readers Cannot hear our inner thoughts Do not know our backgrounds Cannot know our many hidden beliefs Have no access to our research or notes Do not know our values We have to make a special effort to be clear and transparent in our writing One of our greatest barriers to critical thinking is a failure to bridge the communication gap No matter how you write you should take a moment to determine your issue prior to writing Authors who do not take this pause often unknowingly bite off more than they can chew Leave your reader with absolutely no doubt about the argument you are trying to persuade them about Emphasize your conclusion to leave no doubt about what it actually is This will also improve the logic of your writing Making this effort with help bridge the communication gap between readers and writers It will also help facilitate critical thinking discussions m