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Chemistry Week 2 Ch. 1/2

by: Bianca Notetaker

Chemistry Week 2 Ch. 1/2 CHEM 111 001

Bianca Notetaker
GPA 3.0
Elements Of General Chemistry

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About this Document

Covers Chemical and Physical changes, Scientific notation, powers of 10, scientific figures, units of measurement and conversions, temperature conversions as well as some density.
Elements Of General Chemistry
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bianca Notetaker on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 001 at University of New Mexico taught by smith in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Elements Of General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 08/28/15
Ch2 Units of Measurements The Numerical Side of Chemistry Friday Auust Z 2015 930 AM 0 Precision vs Accuracy 0 Both are ways of quantifying how accurate a number is 0 Example Take someone39s aim on a dartboard I Blue would be precise but not accurate I Green both accurate and precise I Red Accurate but not precise I Pink neither 0 Measurements Significant Figures and Uncertainty O For scientific measurements we report all of the digits that are certain and add one digit that is estimated 0 Example 100015 I 10001 is certain 00005 is estimated 0 Scientific notation prefixes and powers of 10 O you want to have only one number to the left of the decimal O These numbers are only significant after a decimal point I Ex 1000000001 1000000 not important 001 important 0 Significant figures 0 Zeroes I Leading zeroes 05 00012 etc don39t count I Trailing zeroes 14000 only count with decimals 0 Combination rules I Multiply amp divide take the quantity with the least amount of New Section 1 Page 1 significant figures this will be the number of significant figures in your answer I Addition amp subtraction find the least significant figures39 place Ex 55489278 and that will be the number of significant figures in your answer I Combo of mult amp div and add amp subt keep track of each sub calculation by indicating the least significant digit by underlining it I DO NOT DO ROUNDING UNTIL THE END I Use order of operations I Example I 2015 x 27001 270 3 Significant figures 0 Units of measurements Scientific Notation Prefixes and Powers of Ten 0001 grams 1 x 103 grams 1 mg milligram 0 1000000 Kelvin 1 x 106 Kelvin 1 MK megaKelvin 0000000003 meters 3 x 10 9 meters 3 nm nanometer 00000045 seconds 45 x 10395 seconds 45 15 microsecond 00206 moles 206 x 10392 moles 206 cmol centimoles SI prefixes TABLE 12 SI Prefix Multipliers Prefix Symbol Multiplier exa E 1000000000000000000 10ml peta P 1000000000000000 110395 te ra T 1000000000000 10392 giga 0 1000000000 10quot 0 mega M 1000000 1106 kilo R 1000 1103 deci d 01 10 1 centi c 001 1072 milli m 0001 110 3 micro 11 0000001 10 6 nano n 0000000001 110 9 pico p 0000000000001 110 femto 1 0000000000000001 10 5 atto a 0000000000000000001 110 0 Unit Conversions EX I 1 km 0621371 Miles Equivalent Ratio 1km 0621371 0621371 Distance 1 Distance 2 2 1 Inverse 621371 m 1 km Distance 2 Distance 1 1 1 0 Temperature and Conversions New Section 1 Page 2 Temp is e measure of Kinetic Errergqir Temperature Seales 2i 1 me 313 r 1 Water hei ls ism i re W Fahrenheit Zeis ius r 1 i lathms degrees riserees l 32 r mm is 231i r Water freezes 455 i i4 39 77777777777777 lrfigti 77777777777777 re UK T rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr Maritime eerie Fahrenheit IlineIsith Rielgrin I Celsius to Kelvin 100 degrees Fahrenheit to Celsius Centrert Fahrenheit t e Ceisius If Tr 321 5 Te 18 a re m Convert Ceisirrs t39e Heiirins is TE ersss Thinking About Density 0 Density Mass Volume dmv O Doubles when you double the amount of material 0 Stays the same when you double the amount of material Standard Volume Units 0 All volumes can be expressed andor converted to a length cubed 0 Combination of units Ex gal oz S Units liters Energy Two main Classifications Energy of motion Energy of arrangement Etota 39l39 In a closed system matter can neither be created nor Nature tends to lower potential energy Etotal is constant a key quantity in predicting physical and chemical changes Standard Energy Units 0 SI Unit of energy Joule j I Joule kg m252Nm 0 One way to change the eergy of a substance is to heat it o o o O O O O O O O o 0 Problem solving Tips New Section 1 Page 3 Get organized I Write down information given I Write down quantity desired Plan I Change what39s given into what39s desired I Evaluate as you go I Evaluate your final answer Summarize to make sure you answered the original question Double check your work practice New Section 1 Page 4 End of Chl Friday August 28 2 15 916 AM 0 Chemical vs Physical changes 0 Physical Changes I Only the state of an object is changed 0 Chemical Changes I Hard to reverse not reversible I Color change is a good indicator of chemical change III Not all color changes are chemical I If a process contains both physical and chemical changes it39s chemical 0 Examples I Cooking a steak III Chemical because you can39t change a cooked steak back to a raw steak I Frost on car windshield in the morning III physical because this process is reversible I Tarnishing silver III Chemical because while you can quotpolishquot your silver you39re only taking away a layer of rust 0 Chemical and Physical Equations I Indicate a change from the initial state to the final state I Chemical adds two equations together in order to create a final product I Physical has an initial reactant that changes to a product New Section 1 Page 1


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