Chapter three notes
Chapter three notes BIOl 1020-003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOl 1020-003 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Zhong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
Principles of Biology Chapter three notes Compiled by Crystal Boutwell Water amp Life Concept 31 Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding the electrons of the covalent bond spends more time closer to the more electronegative atom unequal sharing of electrons Its overall charge is unevenly distributed throughout the molecule Concept 32 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth s suitability for life the clinging on molecules from the same substance to one another Cohesion of water molecules hydrogen bonds hold the substance together contributes to the transport of water up plant roots against gravity clinging of one substance to another how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid the energy of motion the kinetic energy associated With the random movement of atoms or molecules Total thermal energy depends in part on volume a measure of energy that represents the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a body of matter regardless of volume thermal energy in transfer from one body of matter to another heat ows from the warmer object to the colder object the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of l g of water by 1 degree C the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for l g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree C Specific heat of water 1 calorie per gram amp per degree C 1 calgOC These definitions can be found in Pearson s Campbell Biology Second Custom Edition for Auburn University These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class Much of heat energy is used and thus it takes much more heat to raise water s temperature Specific heat can be thought of as a measure of how well a substance resists changing its temperature when it absorbs or releases heat Bene ts of high speci c heat to Earth 1 Oceans and large lakes absorb heat from the Sun and warm the cold air at night This moderates air temperature in coastal regions 2 Stabilizes ocean temperatures creating a favorable environment for marine life 3 Because organisms are made primarily of water we are able to better resist changes in our own temperature the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to gas state To evaporate 1 g of water at 25 degrees C about 580 cal of heat is needed Water s high heat of vaporization stems from hydrogen bonds Again it requires a lot of energy to break the hydrogen bonds so that the water can transition to the gas state Effects of water s high heat of vaporization 1 Moderate s Earth s climate 2 Accounts for the severity of steam burns As a liquid evaporates the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down The hottest water molecules the water molecules with the most kinetic energy are more likely to leave as a gas This contributes to the stability of temperature in lakes and ponds and prevents terrestrial organisms from overheating in the form of sweating Floating of ice on water Water is one of the few substances on Earth in which the solid form is less dense more likely to oat than the liquid form Water expands as it solidifies liquid water hydrogen bonds break and reform allowing molecules to move freely for volume to expand and contract These definitions can be found in Pearson s Campbell Biology Second Custom Edition for Auburn University These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class solid water ice Hydrogen bonds are stable the molecules are kept far enough apart that more space is taken up causing solid ice to be less dense Water The solvent of life the concentration of dissolved substance is the same everywhere in the mixture a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances The dissolving agent the dissolved substance water solvent Water is very versatile because of its polarity The oppositely charged ends of the water molecule allow it to attract to and surround individual ions forming a hydrogen shell gthe sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion nonionic compounds dissolve in water too as long as they are polar water loving this includes substances that dissolve in water but also substances that do not such as cotton and cellulose water hating nonionic and nonpolar substances vegetable oil and cell membranes the sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule measured in moles Ex Calculate the molecular mass of table sugar sucrose C12H22012 Element of atoms Atomic mass Total mass for element C 12 X 12 144 H 22 X 1 22 O 12 X 16 176 C H 0 1212 221 1216 144 22 176 342 daltons Mole mol represents 602 1023 objects 602 l 1023 is Avogadro s number There are 602 1 1023 1 mol daltons in 1 g 1 mol molar mass 1 mol sucrose 342 gramsdaltons These definitions can be found in Pearson s Campbell Biology Second Custom Edition for Auburn University These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class the number of moles of solute per liter of solution Molecular mass X 6021023 g for 1 mol That mass of substance and however much water has to be added to that to fill the solution up to l L l M solution one molar solution 33 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms Hydroxide ions are formed whenever a hydrogen atom shifts from one water molecule to another while participating in a hydrogen bond It leaves behind its electron and its proton joins the second water molecule Started two H20 molecules Ended one hydronium ion H3O represented by H and one hydroxide ion OH39 H and OH39 are 7 highly reactive Acids increase H Bases decrease H 1 By accepting hydrogen ions a NH3 becomes NH4 2 Dissociating to form hydroxide ions which combine with H to form water a NaOH 9 Na OH39 gtkOH39 H 9 H20 Higher concentration OH39 basic solutions Higher concentration of H acidic solutions Equal concentration of both neutral arrows in chemical equations Single strong acidbase it has dissociated completely Double weak acidbase binding and release of hydrogen ions is a reversible reaction Strong examples acid HCl base NaOH Weak examples acid H2CO3 base NH3 The pH scale These definitions can be found in Pearson s Campbell Biology Second Custom Edition for Auburn University These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class The product of H and OH39 103914 H OH39 1014 HJ3910397 OH39 107 in neutral solutions PH 10g H pH declines as hydrogen ion concentration increases pH lt7 acidic pH gt7 basic Buffers A is a substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H and OH39 in a solution It does so by EX carbonic acid in blood lowering ocean pH These definitions can be found in Pearson s Campbell Biology Second Custom Edition for Auburn University These are my own personal notes taken from said book and lectures given in class