Pathophysiology: Minimal Knowledge for chapters 1-3
Pathophysiology: Minimal Knowledge for chapters 1-3 HSC 201
Popular in Pathophysiology 1
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 54 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 201 at Illinois State University taught by Heather Mautino in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Pathophysiology 1 in Nursing and Health Sciences at Illinois State University.
Reviews for Pathophysiology: Minimal Knowledge for chapters 1-3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/28/15
Fall 2015 Minimal Knowledge Introduction to Pathophysiology Lecture 1 Health A state in which all physical amp mental functions are normally active We want our bodies to stay in harmony we want to be well 2 Disease Condition marked by speci c history with speci c clinical signs amp symptoms and with speci c labradiographic diagnostic ndings to nd the disease you have to run many tests to determine that disease Could be caused by trauma physical agents poisons etc 3 Evidencebased medicine Process emphasizing the elements of a wellbuilt clinical question and the key issues that help determine the validity of evidence results from Direct trauma physical agents poisons lndirect genetic anomalies Metabolic amp nutritional disturbances lHness State of being quotnot healthyquot disease ness is not the same as a disease it39s the condition of a person who has a disease Condition State of mental ampor physical health Condition A state of being speci cally in reference to physical and mental health or well being Disorder Pathoogica condition The arrangement or abnormality of the function it39s a certain disorder its not something that you have all the time you maybe medicated to keep that disorder under control Syndrome No precise cause of SSx of dysfunction of which there is a relation among SSx sign and symptom 8 Pathophysiology Process that cause condition or SSx ls what happens to the psychological change 9 Etiology Causes of current condition or SSx lts that cause of your SSx What brought you in the underline or cause of your SSx your predisposing factor 10 History amp Physical Needed for pretty much every chart in the hospital anywhere you go you need an HampP for an inpatient chart Such as npatient should be pretty detailed its going to go over systems what are your SSx what brought you in what is your chief complaint why did you come in it39s going to pretty much interview the patient Should be dictated written down or electronic 11 12 13 14 Out patient any type of procedure that your having done you need an HampP ambulatory services an HampP is also needed if your going to have a day surgery sometimes that HampP will come for his of ce which is ne too he39s just going to talk about why are you having this coonoscopy etc that too will include a review of the systems Signs versus Symptoms igns objective noted by HC professionals about patient ex Observation Palpation Percussion Auscultation Laboratory amp radiologic ndings ymptoms Subjective Identi ed by the patient as feelings sensations ex Weakness fatigue pain dizzy doublevision Prognosis A forecast of the probable course and outcome of an attack of disease and the prospects of recovery as indicated by the nature of the disease and the symptoms of the case RTC Return To Clinic NP 15 16 17 18 Nurse Practitioners midlevel practitioners APN Advance Practice Nurse RD Registered Dietitian can also be a provider especially if you have a BMI issue RN Registered Nurse MD Doctor of Medicine Has attended and graduated from a conventional allopathic medical schooL 19 20 21 DO Doctor of Osteopathic medicine Is a fully trained and licensed doctor who has attended and graduated from a US osteopathic medical school some osteopathic doctors provide manual medicine therapies such as spinal manipulation or massage therapy as part of their treatment They have to same rights as an MD but they can be board certi ed by the AMA or American osteopathic association Screening HampP A program designed to evaluate the health status and potential of an individual In the process it may be found that a person has a particular disease or condition or is at greaterthannormal risk of its development Health screening may include taking a personal and family health history and performing a physical examination tests laboratory tests or radiologic examination and may be followed by counseling education referral or further testing Make sure you will come out of surgery and that everything is in the clear when you go in Diagnostic HampP Signs symptom illness injury Why did you come into the hospital why does that HampP need to be done they will document using SOAP subjective symptoms Objective what he doctor sees and thinks is going on Assessment physicians decision on what the diagnosis and workup is going to be Plan what is he going to do Can be done by 22 23 24 25 26 Admitting Physician A physician who is formally and legally responsible for admitting a patient to a health care facility Attending Physician One who attends a hospital at stated times to visit the patients and give directions as to their treatment Consulting Physician When they attend to the patient A physician or surgeon who does not take full responsibility for a patient but acts in an advisory capacity deliberating with and counseling the attending physician or surgeon Surgeon A physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases injuries and deformities by manual or operative methods SNF Skilled Nursing Facility 27 28 29 30 31 Continued Stay Daily or speci ed by LOC Level of Care Usually PE only after quotAdmission HampPquot LOC neurological reference Level Of Consciousness they are going to test that through a CTMRI Mentation your going to access the LOC by using the Glasgow scale monitored and if the patient knew there was a loss of consciousness LOC nonclinical reference Level Of Consciousness not monitored and paitent might not know there was a loss of consciousness PE as it refers to assessment Physical Exams Vital Signs 32 33 34 35 36 Cinica measurements speci cally pulse rate temperature respiration rate and blood pressure that indicate the state of a patient39s essential body functions Observation see The action or process of observing something or someone carefully or in order to gain information Percussion sound The act or technique of tapping the surface of a body part to learn the condition of the parts beneath by the resulting sound Palpation feel Physical examination in medical diagnosis by pressure of the hand or ngers to the surface of the body especially to determine the condition as of size or consistency of an underlying part or organ Auscultation hearing using stethoscope The act of listening to sounds arising within organs as the lungs or heart as an aid to diagnosis and treatment Major SSx 37 38 39 40 Differentiates a speci c condition from other conditions Pain in left ank with radiation to groin coming in waves of pain Knifelike pain from stomach to back with patient pointing at painful area with on or two ngers Presenting SSx Presented at encounter with HC professionals ex ER hospitals OP Chief Complaint A subjective statement made by a patient describing the most signi cant or serious symptoms or signs of illness or dysfunction that caused him or her to seek health care It is used most often in a health history Physical Exam A physical examination is an evaluation of the body and its functions using inspection palpation feeling with the hands percussion tapping with the ngers and auscultation listening A complete health assessment also includes gathering information about a person39s medical history and lifestyle doing laboratory tests and screening for disease History of Present Illness An account obtained during the interview with the patient of the onset duration and character of the present illness as well as of any acts or factors that aggravate or ameliorate the symptoms The patient is asked what he or she considers to be the cause of the symptoms and whether a similar condition has occurred in the past 41 Past Medical History 42 43 nformation obtained from the patient to aid in establishing a medical diagnosis and developing a treatment plan A narrative or record of past events and circumstances that are or may be relevant to a patient39s current state of health Informally an account of past diseases injuries treatments and other strictly medical facts More formally a comprehensive statement of facts pertaining to past and present health gathered ideally from the patient by directed questioning and organized under the following heads Chief Complaint CC a brief statement of the complaint or incident that prompted medical consultation History of Present Illness HPI a detailed chronologic narrative as much as possible in the patient39s own words of the development of the current health problem from its onset to the present Past Medical History PMH prior illnesses their treatments and sequelae Social History SH marital status past and present occupations travel hobbies stresses diet habits and use of tobacco alcohol or drugs Family History FH present health or cause of death of parents brothers sisters with particular attention to hereditary disorders Review of Systems ROS an exhaustive survey of symptoms or diseases organized by body system not covered in previous parts of the history Social History A summary of lifestyle practices eg diet exercise sexual orientation and level of sexual activity occupation and habits eg smoking abuse of alcohol or other substance which may have a direct or indirect effect on a person39s heath Family History 44 45 A written documentation made after questioning the patient about the presence or absence of diseases or conditions in his or her family that might have an effect on the health of the patient eg coronary disease alcoholism diabetes mellitus An essential part of a patient39s medical history in which he or she is asked about the health of members of the immediate family in a series of speci c questions to discover any disorders to which the patient may be particularly vulnerable such as quotHas anyone in your family had tuberculosis diabetes mellitus breast cancerquot Hereditary and familial diseases are especially noted The age and health of each person age at death and causes of death are charted Often a genogram is developed for pictoral documentation The family health history is obtained from the patient or family in the initial interview and becomes a part of the permanent record Other questions such as those concerning the age sex relationships of others in the household and marital history of the patient may also be asked if the information has not already been secured Laboratory testing A procedure usually conducted in a laboratory that is intended to detect identify or quantify one or more signi cant substances evaluate organ functions or establish the nature of a condition or disease Laboratory tests range from quite simple to extremely sophisticated In modern medical practice they are commonly used to help establish or con rm a diagnosis and often aid in the management of disease Radiologic testing A radiologic test that was ordered by a HC professional and what was done using xrays or nuclear radiation for examination or photographing of organs bones etc with such rays 46 47 48 49 Invasive vs Noninvasive diagnostic amp treatment procedures nvasive involving entry into the body by cutting or by inserting an instrument Noninvasive done without cutting the body or putting something into the body Admitting Diagnosis Tentative or presumptive diagnosis of a patient39s condition or disorder at the time of admission Though to be probably diagnosis based on available SSx at the time of admission to hospital Provisional Diagnosis Thought to be probably diagnosis based on current and available SSx Differential Diagnosis Physician identi es several potential diagnoses for the patient39s presenting SSx Eg Pt CO stomach pain physician considers Gastritis Gastric ulcer GE re ux food intolerance 50 51 52 53 54 Rule Out Diagnosis Severa potential diagnoses for which the physician orders several tests to identify the speci c diagnosis Term used in medicine meaning to eliminate or exclude something from consideration For example a normal chest xray may quotrule outquot pneumonia Principal Diagnosis Condition established after study to be chie y responsible for admission of the patient to the hospital Comorbid Diagnosis Condition present in addition to the Principle Diagnosis which increases the patient39s length of stay by one day in 75 of the cases Diagnosis versus Diagnose Diagnosis determination of the nature of a cause of a disease a concise technical description of the cause nature or manifestations of a condition situation or problem Diagnoses to identify or recognize a disease To make a diagnosis Admitting Diagnosis vs Discharge Diagnosis Admittind Diagnosis Tentative or presumptive diagnosis of a patient39s condition or disorder at the time of admission Discharde Diagnosis The nal diagnosis given a patient before release from the hospital after all testing surgery and workup are complete 55 56 Acute condition versus chronic condition Acute conditions are severe and sudden in onset This could describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack A chronic condition by contrast is a longdeveloping syndrome such as osteoporosis or asthma Note that osteoporosis a chronic condition may cause a broken bone an acute condition An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease of asthma Acute conditions such as a rst asthma attack may lead to a chronic syndrome if untreated Exacerbation lncreased severity of a disease or any of its signs or symptomsbad reaction of it gets worse Complication A morbid process or event that occurs during the course of a disease that is not an essential part of that disease although it may result from it or from independent cause ex Diabetic ulcer goes away hopefully 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Rx The symbol for prescription or treatment Prescribed treatment Prescribed by HC provider Physicians or medlevel practitioners Prognosis Determined by physician39s quotbest professional estimatequot about the paitent39s condition How long will have symptom How ling with have condition Wi condition return amp with what SSx When will die with condition hospice determined to be six months or less Idiopathic condition Cause unknown Iatrogenic condition Caused by treatment Subclinical condition Path changes occur without observable SSx Remission versus Exacerbation Remission l DiseaseConditionSignSymptom 64 65 66 Exacerbation T DiseaseConditionSignSymptom Predisposing Factors Conditionsituation that may make a person susceptible to disease Hereditary Diseases Result from genetic makeup Predisposing vs Hereditary redisposing condition situation that may make a person susceptible to disease Hereditary result from genetic makeup Fall 2015 Minimal Knowledge Lecture Diagnostic Procedures amp Testing 1 Cardiologist A doctor with special training and skill in nding treating and preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels 2 EKGECG ElectrocardiogramElectrokardiogram s the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on a patient39s body These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from the heart muscle depolarizing during each heartbeat 3 Echocardiography The use of ultrasound waves to investigate the action of the heart 4 Neurologist Is a doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the nervous system The nervous system comprises the central and peripheral nervous system This complex system involves the spinal cord and the brain 5 HC Health care 6 Electroencephalography EEG Is a measure of brain waves It is a readily available test that provides evidence of how the brain functions over time The EEG is used in the evaluation of brain disorders Most commonly it is used to show the type and location of the activity in the brain during a seizure 7 Echoencephalography The use of ultrasound to examine and measure internal structures as the ventricles of the skull and to diagnose abnormalities and disease 8 Electromyography EMG is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph to produce a record called an electromyogram 9 Pathologist A physician who interprets and diagnoses the changes caused by disease in tissues and body uids 10 Physician Specialist A person who devotes himself or herself to one subject or to one particular branch of a subject or pursuit a medical practitioner who devotes attention to a particular class of diseases patients etc 11 Amniocentesis The sampling of amniotic uid using a hollow needle inserted into the uterus to screen for developmental abnormalities in a fetus 12 DampC Dilation and curettage is a procedure to remove tissue from inside your uterus Doctors perform dilation and curettage to diagnose and treat certain uterine conditions such as heavy bleeding or to clear the uterine lining after a miscarriage or abortion 13 Pap test cervixbronchial A test to detect cancer of the cervix or uterus using a specimen of cellular material from the neck of the uterus spread on a microscope slide 14 Biopsy An examination of tissue removed from a living body to discover the presence cause or extent of a disease 15 Bone marrow Biopsy The removal of a sample of bone marrow and a small amount of bone through a large needle Two samples are taken The rst is bone marrow by aspiration suction with a syringe The second is a core biopsy to obtain bone marrow along with bone bers After the needle is removed this solid sample is pushed out of the needle with a wire Both samples are examined under a microscope to examine the cells and the architecture of the bone marrow 16 Liver Biopsy Is a procedure to remove a small piece of liver tissue so it can be examined under a microscope for signs of damage or disease 17 Lung Biopsy Is a procedure in which samples of lung tissue are removed with a special biopsy needle or during surgery to determine if lung disease or cancer is present A lung biopsy may be performed using either a closed or an open method 18 Bronchial Biopsy Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy is a procedure in which a bronchoscope is inserted through the nose or mouth to collect several pieces of lung tissue 19 WP Pyelogram Intravenous Pyelogram 20 Lumbar Puncture The procedure of taking uid from the spine in the lower back through a hollow needle usually done for diagnostic purposes 21 Myelogram Is an Xray study that involves the injection of a dye into the spinal canal to assess the nerve roots A needle is injected into the thecal sac containing the nerve roots with radiopaque dye that will highlight the nerve areas in the X ray image 22 Paracentesis The perforation of a cavity of the body or of a cyst or similar outgrowth especially with a hollow needle to remove uid or gas 23 Pericardiocentesis Also called a pericardial tap is an invasive procedure that involves using a needle and catheter to remove uid called a pericardial effusion from the sac around the heart the pericardium The uid may then be sent to a laboratory for tests to look for signs of infection or cancer 24 Thoracentesis Is a procedure to remove uid from the space between the lungs and the chest wall called the pleural space 25 Endoscopy vs Endoscope Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body Unlike most other medical imaging devices endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ Endoscope an instrument that can be introduced into the body to give a view of its internal parts 26 Laryngoscopy Laryngoscopy refers to a procedure used to view the inside of the larynx the voice box 27 Bronchoscopy Is a procedure in which a hollow exible tube called a bronchoscope is inserted into the airways through the nose or mouth to provide a view of the tracheobronchial tree It can also be used to collect bronchial andor lung secretions and to perform tissue biopsy 28 Cystoscopy Is a procedure used to see inside your urinary bladder and urethra the tube that carries urine from your bladder to the outside of your body 29 EGDEsophagogastroduodenoscopy ls performed to examine the lining of your esophagus The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects your throat to your stomach and the duodenum the upper part of the small intestine An EGD test is administered by passing a small camera on a tube called an endoscope down the throat and along the length of your esophagus 30 Laparoscopy A surgical procedure in which a beroptic instrument is inserted through the abdominal wall to view the organs in the abdomen or to permit a surgical procedure a Abdominal A slender tubular endoscope that is inserted through an incision in the abdominal wall to examine or perform minor surgery within the abdomen or pelvis b Pelvic c Diagnostic vs Therapeutic Is a surgical procedure that doctors use to view a woman39s reproductive organs A laparoscope a thin viewing tube similar to a telescope is passed through a small incision cut in the abdomen 31 ERCP An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram ERCP test checks the tubes ducts that drain the liver gallbladder and pancreas A exible lighted scope endoscope and Xray pictures are used The scope is put through the mouth and gently moved down the throat It goes into your esophagus stomach and duodenum until it reaches the point where the ducts from the pancreas and gallbladder drain into the duodenum Xrays will then be taken 32 Gastroscopy Is an examination of the upper digestive tract the oesophagus stomach and duodenum using an endoscope a long thin exible tube containing a camera and a light to view the lining of these organs Prep work done before procedure 33 Colonoscopy Is an exam used to detect changes or abnormalities in the large intestine colon and rectum During a colonoscopy a long exible tube colonoscope is inserted into the rectum A tiny video camera at the tip of the tube allows the doctor to view the inside of the entire colon Prep work done before procedure 34 Sigmoidoscopy Examination of the sigmoid colon by means of a exible tube inserted through the anus Prep work done before procedure 35 Proctoscopy Inspection of the rectum with a proctoscope The examination is usually done prior to rectal surgery and it may be a part of the physical examination of a patient with hemorrhoids rectal bleeding or other symptoms of a rectal disorder Is a common medical procedure in which an instrument called a proctoscope also known as a rectoscope although the latter may be a bit longer is used to examine the anal cavity rectum or sigmoid colon 36 Arthrogram Is a series of images often Xrays of a joint after injection of a contrast medium 37 Ba Swallow Barium swallow A test that involves lling the esophagus stomach and small intestines with a barium solution in preparation for an Xray to de ne the anatomy of the upper digestive tract Also known as upper gastrointestinal series 38 Barium Enema Ba E or BE A barium enema also known as a lower GI gastrointestinal exam is a test that uses xray examination to view the large intestine There are two types of this test the singlecontrast technique where barium sulfate is injected into the rectum in order to gain a pro le view of the large intestine and the doublecontrast or quotair contrastquot technique where air is inserted into the rectum 39 CXR Chest xray is a painless noninvasive test that creates pictures of the structures inside your chest such as your heart lungs and blood vessels 40 Cholecystog ram A radiograph of the gallbladder made after ingestion or injection of a radiopaque substance 41 CT scan Also known as a CAT scan is an Xray image made using computerized axial tomography 42 Doppler US Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can be used to estimate your blood ow through blood vessels by bouncing highfrequency sound waves ultrasound off circulating red blood cells A regular ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images but can39t show blood ow 43 Flat plate of abdomen A survey radiograph xray usually of the abdomen without use of contrast media and obtained while the patient is recumbent 44 Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that shows a continuous Xray image on a monitor much like an Xray movie During a uoroscopy procedure an X ray beam is passed through the body 45 HysterosalpinogramHSG is an important test of female fertility potential The HSG test is a radiology procedure usually done in the radiology department of a hospital or outpatient radiology facility Radiographic contrast dye is injected into the uterine cavity through the vagina and cervix 46 Intravenous Pyelogram IVP is an xray examination of the kidneys ureters and urinary bladder that uses iodinated contrast material injected into veins An xray radiograph is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions 47 KUB Kidneys Ureters and Bladder refers to a diagnostic medical imaging technique of the abdomen and stands for Kidneys Ureters and Bladder A KUB is a plain frontal supine radiograph of the abdomen 48 Lymphangiography Xray examination of the vessels of the lymphatic system after injection of a substance opaque to Xrays 49 MRI Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is a technique that uses a magnetic eld and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body Most MRI machines are large tubeshaped magnets When you lie inside an MRI machine the magnetic eld temporarily realigns hydrogen atoms in your body 50 Mammogram An xray image of the breast produced by mammography 51 Myelogram is an Xray study that involves the injection of a dye into the spinal canal to assess the nerve roots A needle is injected into the thecal sac containing the nerve roots with radiopaque dye that will highlight the nerve areas in the X ray image 52 Ultrasonography a technique using echoes of ultrasound pulses to delineate objects or areas of different density in the body 53 MRI lc contrast Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is the newest and perhaps most versatile medical imaging technology available Doctors can get highly re ned images of the body39s interior without surgery using MRI By using strong magnets and pulses of radio waves to manipulate the natural magnetic properties in the body this technique makes better images of organs and soft tissues than those of other scanning technologies MRI is particularly useful for imaging the brain and spine as well as the soft tissues of joints and the interior structure of bones The entire body is visible to the technique which poses few known health risks 54 UGI series An upper gastrointestinal series also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a series of radiographs used to examine the gastrointestinal tract for abnormalities 55 Urogram A radiograph of the urinary tract 56 Xray of body part examples a Right knee b Skull c Abdominal d CXR 57 Aortogram involves placement of a catheter in the aorta and injection of contrast material while taking xrays of the aorta The procedure is known as aortog raphy 58 Arteriogram is an imaging test that uses xrays and a special dye to see inside the arteries It can be used to view arteries in the heart brain kidney and other parts of the body 59 Femoral Arteriogram During an angiogram a thin tube called a catheter is placed into a blood vessel in the groin femoral artery or vein or just above the elbow brachial artery or vein The catheter is guided to the area to be studied 60 Cerebral Angiography is a diagnostic test that can help your doctor nd blockages in the blood vessels of your head and neck These blockages can lead to a stroke or aneurysm The doctor uses a catheter a long exible tube and an external Xray to get very detailed images of these vessels 61 Coronary Angiogram may be performed to detect abnormalities of the blood vessels within or leading to the brain Such abnormalities include aneurysms stenosis arteriovenous malformation a condition in which there is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins thrombosis a blood clot within a blood vessel vasospasm a spasm of the blood vessel causing an irregular narrowing of the vessel or occlusion complete obstruction of a blood vesseD 62 R amp L Cardiac Catheterization is the passage of a thin exible tube catheter into the right or left side of the heart It is done to diagnose or treat certain heart problems 63 L Ventriculogram is a test done during cardiac catheterization that evaluates the main pumping chamber of your heart left ventricle During a ventriculogram your doctor injects a dye into your heart that makes the inside of your heart show up on Xray The images are recorded on lm or on a computer 64 Bronchogram with Bx amp Washings refers to the phenomenon of air lled bronchi dark being made visible by the opaci cation of surrounding alveoli greywhite It is almost always caused by a pathologic airspacealveolar process in which something other than air lls the alveoli 65 ABGs arterial blood gas ABG test measures the acidity pH and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery This test is used to check how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood 66 Pulmonologist or pulmonary disease specialist is a physician who possesses specialized knowledge and skill in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary lung conditions and diseases Pulmonology is classi ed as an internal medicine subspecialty 67 Critical Care lntensivist An intensivist also known as a critical care physician is a medical doctor with special training and experience in treating critically ill patients An intensivist completes a fellowship in critical care medicine after nishing a residency in internal medicine pulmonary medicine anesthesia or surgery 68 Respiratory Therapist RT is a specialized healthcare practitioner who has graduated from a university and passed a national board certifying examination Respiratory therapists work most often in intensive care and operating rooms but are also commonly found in outpatient clinics and homehealth environments 69 PFT Pulmonary Function Test gauge how the lungs are expanding and contracting when a person inhales and exhales and measure the efficiency of the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the air within the lungs 70 Holter Monitor a portable device that records the rhythm of the heart continuously typically for 24 48 hours by means of electrodes attached to the chest 71 Ambulatory BP monitoring Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring ABPM measures blood pressure at regular intervals It is believed to be able to reduce the white coat hypertension effect in which a patient39s blood pressure is elevated during the examination process due to nervousness and anxiety caused by being in a clinical setting 72 Audiogram is a means of recording the results of a hearing test It will include a table and a graph for each ear showing how well you could hear sounds at various frequencies This graph dominates the audiogram and measures the lowest volume that you can hear pure tone signals at different frequencies for each ear 73 Audiologist A health care professional who is trained to evaluate hearing loss and related disorders including balance vestibular disorders and tinnitus ringing in the ears and to rehabilitate individuals with hearing loss and related disorders 74 CBC Complete Blood Count a Hematocrit the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood b Hemoglobin a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates lts molecule comprises four subunits each containing an iron atom bound to a heme group c HH sometimes written as quotHampHquot is a popular shorthand for hemoglobin and hematocrit two very common and important blood tests Hemoglobin is the oxygencarrying protein pigment in the blood speci cally in the red blood cells d RBC Red Blood Count any of the hemoglobincontaining cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood called also erythrocyte red blood corpuscle red cell red corpuscle compare white blood cell e WBC basophils eosinophils monocytes neutrophils White Blood Count Basophils are granulocytic white blood cells that are active in the in ammatory response They are mostly found in the skin and mucosa tissues which are the tissues lining the openings into the body They represent about 1 of all white blood cells in the body The eosinophil is a specialized cell of the immune system This proin ammatory white blood cell generally has a nucleus with two lobes bilobed and cytoplasm lled with approximately 200 large granules containing enzymes and proteins with different known and unknown funcUons Monocytes a large circulating white blood cell formed in bone marrow and in the spleen that ingests large foreign particles and cell debris Neutrophil A type of white blood cell a granulocyte that is lled with microscopic granules little sacs containing enzymes that digest microorganisms Also known as polymorphonuclear leukocyte or poly f Platelets a small colorless diskshaped cell fragment without a nucleus found in large numbers in blood and involved in clotting 75 Pancytopenia de ciency of all three cellular components of the blood red cells white cells and platelets 76 Urine Glucose A rare condition in which glucose is released from the kidneys into the urine even when blood glucose levels are normal renal glycosuria Pregnancy Up to half of women have glucose in their urine at some time during pregnancy Glucose in the urine may mean that a woman has gestational diabetes Renal glycosuria 77 Blood glucose Blood sugar or blood glucose refers to sugar that is transported through the bloodstream to supply energy to all the cells in our bodies The sugar is made from the food we eat 78 GTT Glucose Tolerance Test a test of the body39s ability to metabolize glucose that involves the administration of a measured dose of glucose to the fasting stomach and the determination of glucose levels in the blood and urine at measured intervals thereafter and that is used especially to detect diabetes mellitus 79 Hgb A1C HbAlc levels depend on the blood glucose concentration The higher the glucose concentration in blood the higher the level of HbA1c Levels of HbAlc are not in uenced by daily uctuations in the blood glucose concentration but re ect the average glucose levels over the prior 6 to 8 weeks Measurement of HbAlc is a useful indicator of how well the blood glucose level has been controlled in the recent past and may be used to monitor the effects of diet exercise and drug therapy on blood glucose in patients with diabetes In healthy people without diabetes the HbA1c level is less than 7 percent of total hemoglobin Also known as glycosylated or glucosylated hemoglobin 80 Random blood sugar RBG amount of glucose dissolved in circulating blood recorded irrespective of when food was last ingested two consecutive RBG recordings gt10 mmolL are strongly indicative of diabetes mellitus 81 Fasting Blood Sugar FBS a measurement of the concentration of glucose in the plasma after the patient has not eaten for at least 8 hours 82 Electrolytes Salts and minerals that can conduct electrical impulses in the body Common human electrolytes are sodium chloride potassium calcium and sodium bicarbonate Electrolytes control the uid balance of the body and are important in muscle contraction energy generation and almost every major biochemical reaction in the body Na Sodium K Potassium CL39 Chlorine CA Calcium Mg Magnesium mapsm 83 Lipids any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents They include many natural oils waxes and steroids 84 BUN blood urea nitrogen BUN test reveals important information about how well your kidneys and liver are working A BUN test measures the amount of urea nitrogen that39s in your blood 85 Serum Creatinine a nitrogenous compound formed as the end product of CREATINE metabolism It is formed in the muscle in relatively small amounts passes into the blood and is excreted in the urine A laboratory test for the creatinine level in the blood may be used as a measurement of kidney func on 86 Glomerular Filtration Rate GFR is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working Speci cally it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute Glomeruli are the tiny lters in the kidneys that lter waste from the blood 87 Bilirubin amp liver studies Bilirubin testing checks for levels of bilirubin in your blood Bilirubin bilih ROObin an orangeyellow pigment is a waste product of the normal breakdown of red blood cells Bilirubin passes through the liver and eventually out of the body mostly in feces a small amount in urine 88 Thyroid Pro le or Studies 89 Thyroid function tests are blood tests used to evaluate how effectively the thyroid gland is working These tests include the thyroidstimulating hormone test TSH the thyroxine test T4 the triiodothyronine test T3 the thyroxinebinding globulin test TBG the triiodothyronine resin uptake test T3RU and the longacting thyroid stimulator test LATS 90 Cardiac enzymes Troponin CKCPK 91 CampS body uids Examples Culture amp sensitivity a Blood b Sputum c Urine d Stool 92 PSA prostatespeci c antigen is a protein produced by the prostate gland Although most PSA is carried out of the body in semen a very small amount escapes into the blood stream The PSA test is done on blood 93 PKU Phenylketonuria is a rare inherited disorder that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in your body PKU is caused by a defect in the gene that helps create the enzyme needed to break down phenylalanine 94 Urinalysis UA analysis of the urine as an aid in the diagnosis of disease Many types of test are used in analyzing the urine in order to determine whether it contains abnormal substances indicative of disease The most signi cant substances normally absent from urine and detected by urinalysis are protein glucose acetone blood pus and casts 95 24 hour urine for 96 Pap Smear The Papanicolaou test abbreviated as Pap test known earlier as Pap smear cervical smear or smear test is a method of cervical screening used to detect potentially precancerous and cancerous processes in the cervix opening of the uterus or womb 97 Stool for a Occult Blood FOBT is a lab test used to check stool samples for hidden occult blood Occult blood in the stool may indicate colon cancer or polyps in the colon or rectum though not all cancers or polyps bleed b Fat test measures the amount of fat in your feces or stool The concentration of fat in your stool can tell doctors how much fat your body absorbs during digestion Changes in stool consistency and odor can indicate that your body isn t absorbing as much as it should 98 Pro le Tests Measurement of multiple lab tests that re ect the function of several organ systems 99 Panel Tests Group of selected diagnostic tests and procedures that re ect the function or status of a speci c organ or disease 100 HTN Hypertension High blood pressure is a common condition in which the longterm force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems such as heart disease 101 DM diabetes mellitus the most common form of diabetes caused by a de ciency of the pancreatic hormone insulin which results in a failure to metabolize sugars and starch Sugars accumulate in the blood and urine and the byproducts of alternative fat metabolism disturb the acid base balance of the blood causing a risk of convulsions and coma 102 COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD is a chronic in ammatory lung disease that causes obstructed air ow from the lungs 103 CAD coronary artery disease narrowing of the lumen of one or more of the coronary arteries usually due to atherosclerosis myocardial ischemia can cause congestive heart failure angina pectoris or myocardial infarction 104 Arthritis painful in ammation and stiffness of the joints 105 CHF congestive heart failure a weakness of the heart that leads to a buildup of uid in the lungs and surrounding body tissues 106 MI The term quotmyocardial infarctionquot focuses on the heart muscle which is called the myocardiumand the changes that occur in it due to the sudden deprivation of circulating blood This is usually caused by arteriosclerosis with narrowing of the coronary arteries the culminating event being a thrombosis clot The main change is death necrosis of myocardial tissue 107 Anemia a condition marked by a de ciency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood resulting in pallor and weariness 108 Drug abuse the habitual taking of addictive or illegal drugs Fall 2015 Minimal Knowledge Lecture Relationship of Organ amp Body to Vital Signs amp Diagnostic Tes ng 1 Vital Signs clinical measurements specifically pulse rate temperature respiration rate and blood pressure that indicate the state of a patient39s essential body functions 2 TPR BP temperature pulse and respiration Blood Pressure 3 Temperature amp its norm for adults the degree of internal heat of a person39s body 986 F 37 C 4 Pulse amp its normal range for adults a rhythmical throbbing of the arteries as blood is propelled through them typically as felt in the wrists or neck 60 to 100 beats per minute 5 Respirations amp its normal range for adults a single breath The normal respiration rate for an adult at rest is 12 to 20 breaths per minute 6 Blood Pressure amp its normal range for adults the pressure of the blood in the circulatory system often measured for diagnosis since it is closely related to the force and rate of the heartbeat and the diameter and elasticity of the arterial walls More than 120 over 80 and less than 140 over 90 1208014090 You have a normal blood pressure reading but it is a little higherthan it should be and you should try to lower it 7 Pain as a vital sign Scale of 1 to 10 with 10 as most pain illiterate or nonenglish speaking patients us smiley faces to incicate pain levels 8 Neurological sign pupillary activity Pupillary activity PERTL is normal 33 33 Abnormal 33 1010 noreaction pinpoint dialated 9 PERTL Pupils Equal and Reactive To Light 10 Glasgow Coma Scale GCS is the most common scoring system used to describe the level of consciousness in a person following a traumatic brain injury Basically it is used to help gauge the severity of an acute brain injury The test is simple reliable and correlates well with outcome following severe brain injury 11 CBC amp its components Complete Blood Count a blood test used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide range of disorders including anemia infection and leukemia 12 ABGs amp its components Arterial Blood Gas is a blood test that is performed using blood from an artery It involves puncturing an artery with a thin needle and syringe and drawing a small volume of blood 13 Troponin a globular protein complex involved in muscle contraction It occurs with tropomyosin in the thin filaments of muscle tissue 14 CK CKMB CK any of three isoenzymes found especially in vertebrate skeletal and myocardial muscle that catalyze the transfer of a highenergy phosphate group from phosphocreatine to ADP with the formation of ATP and creatine CKMB test may be used as a followup test to an elevated CK in order to determine whether the increase is due to heart damage or skeletal muscle damage The test is most likely to be ordered if a person has chest pain or if a person39s diagnosis is unclear such as if a person has nonspecific symptoms like shortness of breath extreme fatigue dizziness or nausea CK and CKMB were once the primary tests ordered to detect and monitor heart attacks but they have now been largely replaced by the troponin test which is more specific for damage to the heart If a troponin test is not available then the CKMB test is still considered an acceptable substitute 15 Echocardiogram a test of the action of the heart using ultrasound waves to produce a visual display used forthe diagnosis or monitoring of heart disease 16 Cardiac Catheterization is a procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions During cardiac catheterization a long thin tube called a catheter is inserted in an artery or vein in your groin neck or arm and threaded through your blood vessels to your heart 17 CardiacCath Cardiac Catheterization 18 Aortogram involves placement of a catheter in the aorta and injection of contrast material while taking xrays ofthe aorta The procedure is known as aortography 19 Coronary Angiography right amp left is a test that uses dye and special x rays to show the insides of your coronary arteries The coronary arteries supply oxygenrich blood to your heart A waxy substance called plaque plak can build up inside the coronary arteries 20 Heart sounds S1 52 S152 are discrete bursts of auditory vibrations of varying intensity loudness frequency pitch quality and duration The first heart sound 51 is composed of several highfrequency components only the first two are normally audible S1 forms the quotlubquot of quotlubdubquot and is composed of components M1 and T1 52 forms the quotdubquot of quotlubdubquot and is composed of components A2 and P2 21 Heart sounds S354 S3 Rarely there may be a third heart sound also called a protodiastolic gallop ventricular gallop or informally the quotKentuckyquot gallop as an onomatopoeic reference to the rhythm and stress of 51 followed by 2 and S3 together quotlubdubtaquot or quotsloshinginquot If new indicates heart failure or volume overload S4 when audible in an adult is called a presystolic gallop or atrial gallop This gallop is produced by the sound of blood being forced into a stiff or hypertrophic ventricle quottalubdubquot or quotastiffwallquot 22 Heart sounds Systolic amp Diastolic Murmurs clicks 23 PFT Pulmonary Function Test gauge how the lungs are expanding and contracting when a person inhales and exhales and measure the efficiency of the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the air within the lungs 24 Inspiratory Volume inspiratory reserve volume n Abbr IRV The maximal volume of air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration Also called complemental air 25 Expiratory Volume the additional amount of air that can be expired from the lungs by determined effort after normal expiration compare inspiratory reserve volume 26 TidalVolu me is the lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied In a healthy young human adult tidal volume is approximately 500 mL per inspiration or 7 mLkg of body mass 27 CampS Culture amp Sensitivity 28 CampS of Sputum A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi plural of fungus that are infecting the lungs or breathing passages Sputum is a thick fluid produced in the lungs and in the always leading to the lungs 29 CampS of Blood A blood culture is a fairly routine test that checks for bacteria yeast and other microorganisms in the blood 30 Blood Culture is a test to find an infection in the blood The blood does not normally have any bacteria or fungi in it A blood culture can show what bacteria or fungi are in the blood 31 Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is a procedure in which a hollow flexible tube called a bronchoscope is inserted into the always through the nose or mouth to provide a view of the tracheobronchial tree It can also be used to collect bronchial andor lung secretions and to perform tissue biopsy 32 Lung Biopsy is a procedure in which samples of lung tissue are removed with a special biopsy needle or during surgery to determine if lung disease or cancer is present A lung biopsy may be performed using either a closed or an open method 33 Washings material collected by the washing of a bodily cavity 34 Pap Smear 35 Bronchogram refers to the phenomenon of airfilled bronchi dark being made visible by the opacification of surrounding alveoli greywhite It is almost always caused by a pathologic airspacealveolar process in which something other than air fills the alveoli 36 CT computerized tomography CT scan combines a series of Xray images taken from different angles and uses computer processing to create cross sectional images or slices of the bones blood vessels and soft tissues inside your body 37 MRI Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is a technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body 38 Hyperpnea is increased depth of breathing when required to meet metabolic demand of body tissues such as during or following exercise or when the body lacks oxygen hypoxia for instance in high altitude or as a result of anemia 39 Tachypnea abnormally rapid breathing 40 Dyspnea difficult or labored breathing 41 Apnea temporary cessation of breathing especially during sleep 42 CheyneStokes Respirations is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea The pattern repeats with each cycle usually taking 30 seconds to 2 minutes 43 Rales an abnormal rattling sound heard when examining unhealthy lungs with a stethoscope 44 Rhonchi are rattling continuous and lowpitched breath sounds that are often hear to be like snoring Rhonchi are also called lowpitched wheezes They are often caused by secretions in larger always or obstructions 45 Stridor a harsh vibrating noise when breathing caused by obstruction of the windpipe or larynx 46 Wheezing of a person breathe with a whistling or rattling sound in the chest as a result of obstruction in the air passages 47 Gurgling make a hollow bubbling sound like that made by water running out of a bottle Ex COPD patients asthma patients 48 Cerebral Arteriogram is an arteriogram of the blood vessels of the brain 49 Carotid Arteriogram is a special type of xray picture to see the blood vessels in your neck that carry blood to the brain 50 EEG electroencephalogram EEG is a test that detects electrical activity in your brain using small flat metal discs electrodes attached to your scalp Your brain cells communicate via electrical impulses and are active all the time even when you39re asleep ex bell39s palsy 51 Echoencephalogram a record produced by echoencephalography 52 Echocardiogram a test of the action of the heart using ultrasound waves to produce a visual display used forthe diagnosis or monitoring of heart disease 53 1amp0 Abbreviation for intake and output 54 Hourly urinary output How much are you putting out 55 Daily weight Are you retaining fluid 56 UA or UA analysis of the urine as an aid in the diagnosis of disease Many types of test are used in analyzing the urine in order to determine whether it contains abnormal substances indicative of disease The most significant substances normally absent from urine and detected by urinalysis are protein glucose acetone blood pus and casts 57 Urine CampS is a method to grow and identify bacteria that may be in your urine Bacteria are germs that cause infections The sensitivity test helps caregivers pick the best medicine to treat your infection 58 BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen 59 Serum Creatinine Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine which is an important part of muscle This article discusses the laboratory test to measure the amount of creatinine in the blood 60 GFR is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working Specifically it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute Glomeruli are the tiny filters in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood 61 Serum Electrolytes 62 IVP intravenous pyelogram IVP is an Xray test that provides pictures of the kidneys the bladder the ureters and the urethra urinary tract An IVP can show the size shape and position of the urinary tract and it can evaluate the collecting system inside the kidneys 63 KUB KUB refers to a diagnostic medical imaging technique of the abdomen and stands for Kidneys Ureters and Bladder A KUB is a plain frontal supine radiograph of the abdomen 64 Oliguria vs Anuria Oliguria the production of abnormally small amounts of urine Anuria failure of the kidneys to produce urine 65 Difference between renal output and urinary retention Oliguria is defined as a urine output that is less than 1 mLkgh in infants less than 05 mLkgh in children and less than 400 mL or 500 mL per 24h in adults this equals 17 or 21 mLhour For example in an adult weighing 70 kg it equals 024 or 03 mLhourkg Urinary retention is defined as the inability to completely or partially empty the bladder 1 Suffering from urinary retention means you may be unable to start urination or if you are able to start you can39t fully empty your bladder 66 Hypotension abnormally low blood pressure 67 Hypertension abnormally high blood pressure 68 Bradycardia definition for adults Bradycardia also known as bradyarrhythmia is a slow heart rate namely a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute BPM in adults It is a type of cardiac arrhythmia It seldom results in symptoms until the rate drops below 50 BPM 69 Tachycardia definition for adults Tachycardia is a faster than normal heart rate at rest A healthy adult heart normally beats 60 to 100 times a minute when a person is at rest If you have tachycardia the heart rate in the upper chambers or lower chambers of the heart or both is increased 70 Relationship of BUN Creatinine amp GFR to Renal Function amp urinary output Renal Insufficiency Renal Failure Acute Renal Failure Chronic Renal Failure
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'