Thermodynamics: Week 1 Notes
Thermodynamics: Week 1 Notes AME 2213
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Evelyn on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AME 2213 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dalton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Thermodynamics in Aerospace Engineering at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
AME 2213 Thermodynamics Fall 2015 Dr Dalton Week 1 August 2428 Topics Covered Lecture Basic Concepts and Terminology 0 Syllabus and Class overview o Thermodynamics Terms and Definitions 0 Systems Properties and Processes 0 Temperature 0 Pressure Applicable Pages in Cengel chpt 1 pg 140 Notes Syllabus overview see syllabus posted on D2L nclass group assignments 35 people work together submit 1 solution Connect to McGraw Hill class website through D2L by August 30 Thermodynamics the science andor study of energy 0 Greek quotthermquot heat and quotdynamquot power 0 Has applications in everything 0 2 varieties classical and statistical Classical Thermodynamics Statistical Thermodynamics Macroscopic studies overall behavior of Microscopic studies individual molecules of system system ie the structure of matter Simple and fast calculations Difficult calculations simplified using statistics What we study in this class Not included in this class Terms and Definitions System the space chose for analysis see pg 10 0 Closed system fixed quantity of matter mass cannot leave the system 0 Energy can leave the system 0 Volume is not a fixed quantity 0 Open control volume system fixed volume in space volume of system cannot change 0 Mass amp energy can leave the system 0 Frequently a flow device ie hose pump turbine etc Surroundings everything outside the system Boundary the surface between the system and surroundings can be tangible or imaginary Control surface a part of the boundary through which mass can pass Property a characteristic of a system which can be described numerically see pg 12 0 Extensive dependent on the size of a system ie volume mass 0 To make extensive properties intensive divide the property by mass V 1 39 Ex speCIfIc volume 17 m P AME 2213 Thermodynamics Fall 2015 Dr Dalton Week 1 August 2428 0 Intensive independent of a system s size ie pressure density temperature State the condition of a system as described by its properties see pg 14 o Steady state properties of the system remain constant over time State Postulate quoteach state has properties of a unique value independent of the process path Process any change of a system from one state to another 0 Isothermal o Isobaric o Adiabatic o sochoricisometric Path the series of states a system passes through in a process 0 Cyclic a path which begins and ends at the same point Phase matter which is homogeneous in both chemical composition and physical structure ie solid liquid gass plasma etc 0 Note a system can be more than one phase Homogeneous matter which cannot be distinguished as separate substances ie salt water air Pure substance matter which is both uniform and invariable in chemical composition 0 Note pure substances cane exist in multiple phases ie water and ice 0 Note mixtures of gasses ie air can be considered pure if 1 They are stable with no chemical reactions 2 They are well mixed Equilibrium a balanced state with an absence of any driving forces that will cause change see pg 14 o Thermodynamic equilibrium 4 types 0 Thermal equilibrium uniform temperature throughout the system 0 Mechanical equilibrium uniform pressure throughout system excluding static pressure I Static pressure vertical pressure resulting from the force of gravity 0 Phase equilibrium the mass of each phase remains constant I Note there can be phase change as long as it occurs equivalently in both directions 0 Chemical equilibrium uniform composition no reactions between compounds 0 Quasiequilibrium infinitesimally close to equilibrium at all times used to approximate systems as if they were in equilibrium 0 Ex a slow compression remains in quasiequilibrium while a rapid one does not Temperature the total amount of kinetic molecular energy present in a sample of matter see pg 17 Thermometric property a property which changes with temperature predictably Thermometric substance has at least one thermometric property Oth Law of Thermodynamics if both systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium with system C then system A and B must also be in thermal equilibrium with one another AME 2213 Thermodynamics Fall 2015 Dr Dalton Week 1 August 2428 0 Note this law provides the basis for all other thermodynamic laws and the basis for how we measure temperature Temperature measurement devices These generally use a thermometric property to indirectly measure temperature then work backwards to calculate the actual temperature 0 liquid in glass thermometer used in medicine and for general use 0 thermometric property used volume 0 liquid usually mercury or alcohol 0 gas thermometer used in laboratories o thermometric property used pressure 0 gas usually hydrogen or helium o thermocouple used in engineering 0 thermometric property used voltage difference due to electromotive force between 2 different metals 0 large temperature range 0 small sensor size 0 thermistor used in electronics 0 thermometric property used electrical resistance with semiconductors Temperature scales 0 these use standard widely known points based on a properties of water 0 ice point equilibrium point where solid and liquid phase coexist at 1atm of pressure 0 steam point equilibrium point where gas and liquid phase coexist at 1atm 0 triple point equilibrium point where solid liquid and gas phases coexist 0 And in the case of Kelvin and Rankine bottom out at absolute zero 0 Absolute zero the lowest possible temperature at which the kinetic energy of molecules is zero Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin Rankine Ice 32 F Ice 0 C Ice 27315 K Ice 49167 R Steam 212 F Steam 100 C Steam 37315 K Steam 67167 R Triple 3203 F Triple 001 C Triple 27316 K Triple 49169 R F18C32 CF 32 KC27315 R18K 18 R F 45967 Pressure as we use it in this class normal force a fluid exerts per unit area see pg 22 0 Note we will only deal with liquid and gas pressures 0 Frequently used units kPa atm millibars inHg 0 Pressure is the same in every direction in a fluid at rest 0 Static pressure varies with depth 0 Pstauc pgh yh where y 2 pg 2 Specific weight Pressure measurement devices These can measure two types of pressure AME 2213 Thermodynamics Fall 2015 Dr Dalton Week 1 August 2428 0 Absolute Pressure the total pressure relative to a vacuum 0 Gage Pressure the pressure reading taken from the measurement device frequently relative to atmospheric pressure I Gage Pressure when the absolute pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure Pgage I Vacuum Pressure when the absolute pressure is less than atmospheric pressure absolute P atmospheric P vacuum P atmospheric P absolute o Manometer 0 Uses fluid statics to calculate pressure 0 U shaped tube filled with liquid 0 Height h of the liquid in the tube is related to system pressure and atmospheric pressure P system atmosphere pgh
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