Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes ANTH 1030-01
Popular in Languages of the World
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan on Friday August 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1030-01 at Tulane University taught by Olanike-Ola Orie in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Languages of the World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 08/28/15
Jordan Phillips Elite Notetaker Week 1 Notes Introduction 0 Language how people communicate with each other 0 Ties communities together 0 System of rules and patterns 0 Expression of ideas and emotions O Clues to history via language connection 0 Mode of communication within a given community 0 Language Modalities O Vocalauditory spoken languages 0 Manualvisual signed gestures o Gestures are manual language used by both hearing and deaf communities 0 Rules and Patterns 0 Phonetics system of sounds o Consonants Vowels Tones Stress Intonation O Phonology rules governing arrangement of sounds o Voiceless consonants vocal fold vibrations are inaudible s f o Voiced consonants vocal fold vibrations are audible 2 v 0 Sounds that change the meaning of words when added are meaningful 0 Sounds like the glottal stop in button is not a meaningful sound I No difference in meaning ift is enunciated or not 0 Rules governing combinations of sounds I Example Play not lpay and alp not apl o Lp good at the end but not the beginning 0 Pl good at the beginning but not the end 0 Morphology word structure architecture of words 0 Building structure by adding endings that modify part of speech is possible in English I Blocking effect one ending blocks another 0 Teaches cannot have an er added but teacher can have an s added 0 Creation of new words by building on others 0 Syntax sentence structure 0 Fixed word order languages I Order contributes to meaning I Subject verb object are elements that can be arranged in six logical ways 0 Subject verb object John eats cake English 0 Subject object verb John cake eats Japanese 0 Free word order languages I Latin words can be in any order O 0 Jordan Phillips Elite Notetaker 39 Each word has a specific identifies indicating the type of word so they can be scrambles Semantics meaning what makes languages functional 0 Visiting relatives can be dreadful I Ambiguous sentence 39 Multiple meanings Pragmatics contextual meanings 0 Meaning drawn from contextual clues 0 quotCan you shut the doorquot can be a request or a questioning of ability out of context I Use context to tell which 0 Dialects are different forms of the same language 0 Eg Australian English British English American English Canadian English 0 Mutually intelligible 0 Within a dialect are different accents from different areas 0 Also foreign accents first language impacts the manner in which you speak your newly acquired language Phone cs Vocal Tract o Phonetics is the study of the sounds of spoken language human speech sounds o Organs of Speech 0 00000000000 Nosenasal cavity Lips upper and lower Teeth upper and lower Tongue Alveolar ridge holds the upper teeth Hard palate roof of mouth Soft palate behind the hard palate also called velum Uvula Pharynx Larynx Trachea wind pipe Lungs Jordan Phillips Elite Notetaker Nasal Cavity l Palate Oral Cavity Pharynx Epiglottis Larynx opening into pharynx Larynx iEsophagus o All languages use the pulmonic egressive air stream mechanism breathing out to talk 0 Voicing happens when the outgoing air from the lungs reaches the larynx O The larynx is composed of the vocal folds at the top open and close and the glottis space between the vocal folds 0 When vocal folds are wide open air goes through easily with no vibration sound is voiced 0 With narrow opening air causes vibrations of the vocal folds sound is voiceless 0 When completely closed no vibrations and a hold in the throat glottal stop 0 Voicing is linguistically contrastive which means it can change the meaning of words 0 Zip and sip the same but for voicing o The air goes from the larynx to the oral tract mouth and pharynx O In the oral tract are the place and manner of articulation 0 Place of articulation the point in the oral tract where the sound is made I For consonants Jordan Phillips Elite Notetaker o Bilabial consonants both lips p b m o Labiodental upper lip and lower teeth f v 0 Dental teeth 6 6 o Alveolar alveolar ridge t d n l s z r o Palatal tongue and hard palate I 3 j o 3 j sometimes called post alveolar sounds o Velar tongue and soft palatevelum k g n o Uvular not in English B o Pharyngeal root of tongue and pharynx h C o Glottallaryngeal h o Labialvelar upper lip sound and soft palate stop kp gb nm 0 Retroflex flipping the tongue and using underside to articulate sound t Cl 0 Manner of articulation how the airstream is modified at the place of articulation I Stops airstream stops at that point because of a closure 0 Oral stop b p t d k g o Nasal stop closure in the mouth but airstream passes through the nasal cavity m n r1 I Fricatives narrow path between articulators airstream forces itself through making noisy sounds s 21 3 f v h h x 0 Can make them from bilabial all the way to glottal o Velar fricative Bach Bax I Affricates combines stops and fricatives tI d3 I Tap trill rolling r39s t flanked by two vowels in English 0 Tap r o Trill r
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