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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathleen Tann on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 221 at Kansas State University taught by Julie L. Commerford in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
DAY 1Lectu re Notes Stuff Geographers like 0 Exploring Understanding why places are the way they are 0 Maps 0 Spatial relations Physical Geographers like 0 Being outside 0 Natural resources Solve environmental problems Scope of Geography Ask Where things are located on surface of Earth 0 Why they are located where they are 0 How places differ 3 MAIN QUESTIONS 1 What is there i Location aObservation eld maps satellite image aerial photographs 2 Why is it there i Analysis eld work lab methods computer modeling 3 Why should we care i Interpretation reach conclusion from data Types of Data 1 Quantitativenumerical i Census ii Temperature iii Number of bears in Yelllowstone 2 Qualitativecategorical i Censusrace sex ii Land types forest urban suburbs 3 Interviews Geography Physical Geog Remote Sensing Human m Marine GeographyAerial Photo and Satellite Imagery Agriculture Soils land use Climatology Regional Developme nt Medical Geog Physical Geography Spatial analysis of physical components and natural processes of Earth Processes and components are interconnected Earth s 4 Spheres Atomosphereenvelope of gasses that surround the Earth Lithosphererockssoil Hydrosphereriverslakesbodies of water 0 Biosphereplants and animals Atmosphere Climatology Global weatherlong lengths of time on research Meteorologyshorter time range Lithosphere Geology Geomorphology Natural Hazards Hyd rosphere Oceanography Glaciology Biosphere Zoology Ecology Land use Interactions Atmosphere and Hydrosphere Water evaporates from river water molecules move into atmosphere water vapors condense into clouds precipitation Lithosphere and Biothere Soil determines what type of plants can grow Plants that grow remove nutrients in soil Material is returned to soil through roots annual leaf fall or plant death and decay Atmosphere and Lithosphere Volcano erupts releasing gases in atmosphere Rocks weathered by wind and precipitation Moisture from soil evaporates Tornado moves dirt and dust Hydrosphere and Lithosphere River transports sediment downstream Human Interactions with Environment Global climate changeatmosphere DeforestationBiosphere Farm land loss hydrosphere Natural Hazardslong term interaction with 4 spheres Ex Planes sent up into clouds and release particulate to make it rain Protect Society against Natural Hazards Floods and river erosion Volcanic eruptions DAY 2Lecture Notes CH2Geographer s Toolkit Geooraphic Grid Great circleit passes through the center of the earth dividing it in half Small circleany circle that intersects surface but not center Always going to be smaller in circumference and radius Airplanes follow great circleshortest distance LatitudelParallels Equator only great circle of line of latitude 3 zones 1 low35 degrees N to 35 degrees S 2 middle35 degrees to 55 degrees N and S 3 high latitude55 degrees to Poles degrees are taken from angle of equator o Lowvery warm weather little change 0 Mid seasonal Highcold region short summers Long ude All lines of longitude are great circles Prime Meridian MapsBasic Tool of Geographers Cartographyefficient display of spatial information 0 Easy color scheme 0 Straightforward No clutter Map Projection 3D earth on 2D surface 0 Always some distortion 0 Can preserve shape or size but never both at same time Globe is most accurate Cylindrical Proiection Light source in earth is projected onto a cylinder Conformed Proiection Mercator Relative shape of lands but size near poles are NOT 0 Lines of latitude are at right anglesuse for boat navigation Conicalproiected onto a cone Albers EqualArea Equivalent Proiection Relative size correct but shape is wrong 0 Line of Latitude are curved Map Scalerelates size or distance between features on a map to actual features in real world Scale 1 Writtenverbal1 in 2000 ft 2 Representative fraction 124000 or 124000 1 inch is 24000 inches 3 Graphic or Bar scale 5 miles Small scale 0 Large geographic areas 0 Limited detail Large scale 0 Small geographic area 0 More detail soine Maps Lines that connect points of equal value on a map Types Isobars atmosphere pressure Isotherms air temperature sohyets precipitation Contourelevation mital Technology in Geography Remote Sensing Field work Airplanestake pictures Satellitesaerial photo 0 Use it for making coastal maps farm modeling landscape architecture Satellites Sunsynchronous orbitkeeps pace with Sun s westward progress Geostationary orbit permanently in one place above earth 0 Use infrared to see it plants are healthy or not GPS System of satellites and receivers to determine location on geographic grid Pseudorandom codePRC transmit signals to nd your location Triangulationhow to nd your location with 34 signals from satellites to triangulate Geographic Info SystemlGlSsystem stores analyzes and manipulating spatially referenced data For analysis layers each assigned speci c attributes