Business Organization and Management: Chapters 1 & 2
Business Organization and Management: Chapters 1 & 2 MQM 220
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MQM 220 at Illinois State University taught by Heather Jia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Business Organization and Management in Business, management at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Chapter 1 Management and organizations Why are managers important Someone has to be in charge and be making the dedsions Organizations need their those skills and abilities simply to avoid chaos to deal with uncertanity make decisions etc that s the basic reason Without any of that dedsion making nothing is going to get done Example zappos got rid of all managers and everyone is at the exact same level and people are leaving because there is uncertainty and they don t like to be in charge of their own decisions People need their bosses the presents of them are annoying but the absence of them is unsettling The most important reason why managers are needed is to have good employeesupervisor relationship The key to increase to optimize productivity and loyalty to any organization is having a good relationship with your boss The most important predictor of productivity and loyalty is employeesupe rvisor relationship Levels of management Nonmanagerial employees You don t manage anything People who flips burgers and makesfries First line managers Your lowestlevel of management usually these are entry level people who perform better than their colleges or cohorts and have been promoted Shift manage rs supervisors Middle managers They manage those firstline managers Manage other managers Regional manager or district manager they would manage the 5 McDonalds in the Bloomington normal area they would manage those 5 firstline managers in that district Top managers Manage those middle managers Manage other managers CEOs executives vice presidents the executive level so in the case of McDonalds the Midwest regional manager so every single McDonalds in the Midwest What do managers do It s a coordination and oversight of work so determining whose going to do what by when and how So making that front end dedsion about who what when where how and then the back end whid1 is making sure they did that when where and how you told them to Make sure the employees are completing their work both effectively and efficiently Effectiveness ends outcome or end result goal attainment more worried about success s dichotomous it s a 100 accurate outcome single every time quotDoing the right thingsquot Attaining organizational goals Getting thejob done right Efficiency means processresource usage s getting it done with the least amount of resources and effort expended quotDoing things rightquot Getting the most output for the least inputs using the least resourceful efforts Getting thejob done quickly or cheaply and walk off Four functions of management Planning Setting goals establishing strategies and developing plans to coordinate activities Organizing Determining what needs to be done how it will be done and who is to do it Leading Motivating leading and any other actions involved in dealing with people Controlling Monitoring activates to ensure that they are accomplished as planned Skills managers need Technical skills Knowledge and profidency in a spedfic field Human skills The ability to work well with other people This is the universal skill Conceptual skills The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization Skills needed at different managerial levels the importance at each level Top managers conceptual skills human skills Middle managers human skills Lowerlevel managers technical skills human skills The importance of sustainability Sustainability a company39s ability to achieve its business goals and increase longterm shareholder values by integrating economic environmental and social opportunities into its business strategies Achieving today39s goals but not at the expense of tomorrow What your straetage is for long term success Why study management Universality of management Every organization has managers They are in all types and sizes of organizations At all organizational levels In all organizational areas In all organizations regardless oflocation Challenges of being a manager Challenges It can be a thankless job May entail clerical type duties Managers also spend significant amounts of ti me in meetings and dealing with interruptions Managers often have to deal with a variety of personalities and have to make do with limited resources Rewards of being a manager Rewards Responsible for creating a productive work environment Recognition and status in your organization and the community Attractive compensation in the form of salaries bonuses and stock options Chapter 2 Constraints on managerial discretion Internal constraint internal to the organization Ex building product employees Culture which is standard way of working or behaving in that company Ex Sleeping over at a friend39s house External constraint external to the organization Ex Customers suppliers government anything that is outside your organization that has impact on you Environment which is everything external to the organization it s the outside world in which your organization lives in Components of external environment Global world economy Ex Greece almost going bankrupt things that are going on globally have an impact on things locally and vice versa Ex 911 and airports stopping flights Political legal laws changing Ex Minimum wage law gay marriages were legalized Socioculture trends change Ex Companies having more paternal time off because of what face book did California will start charging people for the use of plastic bags at grocery stores because it39s bad for the environment Technological online or mobile shopping Ex Companies that have web pages get more customer loyalty because it39s convenient for the customers Demographics who is outside organization Ex Age gender religion marriage single race etc Economics currendes and cheaper imports and exports Ex Cost of gas Environmental uncertainty and complexity Environmental Uncertainty the degree of change and complexity in an organization39s environment Stable vs Dynamic how certain are we the direction of where they39re going Environmental Complexity the number of components in an organization39s environment and the extent of the organization39s knowledge about those components Simple vs Complex how many pieces are left on the table how many components are moving and shifting and causing changes Managing stakeholder39s relationships Stakeholders any constituencies in the organization39s environment that are affected by an organization39s decisions and actions has something to lose or something to gain from the decisions or the success orfailure in an organization Organizational Culture Organizational Culture the shared values principles traditions and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act shared patterns and beliefs the ISU mascot the cardinal means something different to use that to others Strong Cultures organizational cultures in which key values are intensely held and widely shared Ex Google employees Strong vs Weak Cultures Strong Cultures Values widely shared Culture conveys consent messages about what39s important Most employees can tell stories about company history of heroes Employees strongly identify with culture Strong connections between shared values and behaviors Weak Culture Values limited to a few peopleusuay top management Culture sends contradictory messages about what39s important Employees have little knowledge of company history or heroes Employees have little identification with culture Little connection between shared values and behaviors Where does culture come from Organization founder rst source amp most impactical Vision and mission Past practices Top management behavior Socialization the process that helps employees adapt to the organization39s culture orientating people to our way of doing things Ex the military boot camp How do employees learn culture Stories narratives of significant events or people eg organization founders rule breaking reaction to past mistakes etc Rituals sequences of activities that express and reinforce the important values and goals of the organization Material Artifacts and Symbols convey the kinds of behavior that are expected eg risk taking participation authority etc Language acts as a common denominator that bonds members Managerial Decisions Affected by Culture Planning The degree of risk that plans should contain Whether plans should be developed by individuals or teams The degree ofenvironmental scanning in which management will engage Organizing How much autonomy should be designed into employees39 jobs Whether tasks should be done by individuals orin teams The degree to which department managers interact with each other Leading The degree to which managers are concerned with increasing employee job satisfaction What leadership styles are appropriate Whether all disagreements even constructive onesshoud be eliminated Controlling Whether to impose external controls or to allow employees to control their own actions What criteria should be emphasized in employee performance evaluations What repercussions will occur from exceeding one39s budget Creating a customerresponsive culture How do you create a customer responsive culture Hire the right type of employees those with a strong interest in serving customers Ex Know your product Have few rigid rules procedures and regulations Use widespread empowerment of employees Have good listening skills in relating to customers39 messages
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