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Japa 152, Week 7 Notes

by: Brynna Williams

Japa 152, Week 7 Notes JAPA 152

Brynna Williams
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover short forms
Elementary Japanese II
Megumu Burress
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynna Williams on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JAPA 152 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Megumu Burress in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Elementary Japanese II in Literature at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 02/27/16
SHORT FORMS Until now, we’ve conjugated verbs in the masu form, also known as the long form, but now, we have the short form as well. Conjugating the short affirmative form of the verb is simple. It’s the exact same as the dictionary form for all verbs. For example, in long form the sentence “I drink water” would be Watashi wa mizu (w)o nomimasu, but in the short form, it would just be Watashi wa mizu (w)o nomu. The short negative forms, however, are not all conjugated the same. For ru verbs, the short negative form is conjugated by dropping the ru and adding nai to the end of the verb. For example taberu conjugated in the short negative form would become tabenai. For u verbs, the process is not as simple. When conjugating the short negative form of an u verb, the last syllable is changed from its u syllable to its a syllable (e.g. mu would change to ma) and nai is added onto the end of this. If the last syllable of the verb is simply u, however, it will change to wa instead of just a. Here are some examples of u verbs in short negative form: Kau -> kawanai Matsu -> matanai Yomu -> yomanai Au -> awanai There are, as always, a few exceptions to this rule. In this case, these include the aways-irregular verbs kuru and suru, as well as the verb aru. The short negative form of suru is shinai. For kuru, it is konai, and for aru, it is just nai. Adjectives and nouns also have short forms, but there is not much to note about conjugating them. For i adjectives, the desu that typically comes at the end of the sentence is just dropped, and the negative form is conjugated in the same way as usual but also without the desu at the end. For nouns and na adjectives, they are the same as normal as well, but the desu is replaced with da. In many cases, though, da will not be needed. For the negative form of these, it is simply the noun/adjective + janai (+ da). Short forms should be used in casual conversations with friends and family members, but not when talking to strangers or your boss. QUOTING OTHERS To quote something someone has said, the particle to is used in coordination with the verb iu, which means “to say”. To directly quote something someone has said, the quote will be followed by to iimashita. Here is an example: Robaato san wa “imouto ga futari imasu” to iimashita. (Robert said, “I have 2 sisters.”) To quote indirectly, the verb used by the person being quoted is conjugated in its short form, then followed by to itte imashita. Here is an example: Robaato san wa imouto ga futari iru to itte imashita. (Robert was saying he has 2 sisters.)


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