Introduction notes ANT2301
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This 73 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karina Oms on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT2301 at Florida State University taught by Geoffrey Thomas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
ANT 2301 1 Evolution of Human Sexuality Contact Information Name Dr Geoffrey Thomas Email gpthomasfsuedu Office Hours MW 130230 pm or by Appointment Office Anthropology Department Room 102 1847 W Tennessee Street in Varsity Plaza by the CVS and Coliseum Liberal Studies Area V requirement This course satisfies the Liberal Studies Area V requirements The Liberal Studies Program at Florida State University has been designed to provide a perspective on the qualities accomplishments and aspirations of human beings the past and present civilizations we have created and the natural and technological world we inhabit This course has been approved as meeting the requirements for Liberal Studies Area V Natural Science and in combination with your other Liberal Studies courses provides an important foundation for your lifelong quest for knowledge Course Organization NO REQUIRED TEXTBOOK REQUIRED READINGS Posted on Blackboard website under Course Readings Organized by subject igtchker igtclicker 2 required for in class surveys and attendance points 0 Book Store Purchase Online Iborrow from a friend other options New 6125 Only 1 per student used 4600 If caught with 1 you and Reyna those involved will not receive New 3981 any additional points Used 2756 Register through blackboard Grades 3 Exams 100 points each 300 total points EXAM 1 Thursday Sept 24th EXAM 2 Thursday Oct 29th EXAM 3 Final Monday December 7th 730930am 2 Assignments 25 points each 60 points total Assignment 1 Thursday Sept 24th b lbllogrOl PHH OD Assignment 2 Thursday Oct 29th SWIQbUQ 10 points for survey participation igtcicker 5 Attendances igtcicker will be given randomly throughout the semester They are a reward for attending class and will be added to your final average Grading Scale Exam 1 100 points Exam 2 100 points Exam 3 100 points Assignments 2 Surveys 60 points Total 360 possible points Attendance Letter grades for the class will be A 9092 A 93100 8 8082 B 8386 8 8789 C 7072 C 7376 0 7779 D 6062 D 6366 D 6769 F lt 60 Makeup Exams If you miss an exam it is your responsibility to contact me at least 48 hours prior to or 24 hours after the exam date Only those students who submit documentation of a legitimate university approved excuse for missing an exam will be allowed to take a makeup NO LATE ASSIGMENTS WILL BE ACCEPTED Excused absences include Documented illness deaths in the family and other documented crises call to active military duty orjury duty religious holy days and official University activities These absences will be accommodated in a way that does not arbitrarily penalize students who have a valid excuse Consideration will also be given to students whose dependent children experience serious illness SDRC AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT Students with disabilities needing academic accommodation should 1 register with and provide documentation to the Student Disability Resource Center and 2 bring a letter to the instructor indicating the need for accommodation and what type This should be done during the first week of class This syllabus and other class materials are available in alternative format upon request For more information about services available to FSU students with disabilities contact the Student Disability Resource Center 97 Woodward Avenue South 108 Student Services Building Florida State University Tallahassee FL 323064167 850 6449566 voice 850 6448504 TDD sdrcadminfsuedu httpwwwdisabilitycenterfsuedu Cell phones off Use laptops for note taking not social networking playing games editing photos anything distracting to those behind you SIT IN THE BACK PLEASE Stay quiet unless you are directly participating in class Be respectful With emails and during class time How to Succeed in this Class V H h r I 39I39 4 quot I V 39 V r u 0 I v c 4 L1 395 a t g a V I I I Read the Syllabus Attend Class ll Do your readings Participate Check your blackboard and emails Study of course 1 gt35 NOT THIS Course Organization TQGJr L 1 Origins of Human Sexuality Sexual Selection Sexual Characteristics Mating Systems Concealed Ovulation TQin 9 2 Patterns in Human Sexuality Mate preferences Attractiveness Parental Investment Marriage Sexual Coercion TQCSJFB 3 Forms of Sexuality Sexual Orientation Gender Sexual Imagery Sex and Science Course Design l have designed this course to be primarily a biological examination of the evolution of human sexuality through the lens of sexual selection However for nearly every topic I include cultural practices that I hope will challenge your ideals of what human sexuality is about What is Anthropology Anthropology thestuoly of human beings Anthropos human being if lo ia stud of 39 wonl tog unouzrex qnol humans 016 of wnong o Subfields holistic perspective Archeological Cultural Linguistic Physical now Biological 4 The Four Fields of Anthropology l l l l Cultural Anthropology Archaeology Linguistic Anthropology Physical Anthropology The study of cultures and SOCiEtiES 0f human bEings The study of past societies The study of language Also called biological and their very recent past and their cultures especially how language anthropology physical Traditional CUltural especially the material is structured evolution of anthropology is the study anthFOPOIOQiStS StUdY remains of the past such language and the social of human evolution quotVing Mums and Present as tools food remains and and cultural contexts and variation both thequot ObSEWationS in places where people lived for language past and current an ethnography Evolutionary Theory Tries to explain human biology anatomy brains psychology behavior through evolution and natural selection wmi do we cm nq won 3 DQCOIUIQQ it was 9019mm for us Eg The mating systems of primates determinesLthbeirimr2 O Hara Sexual dimorp ism group Size canine size testes size mate guarding behavior cuckpldry njhm r g But the ecology determines the mating system Evolutionary Theory wo oro o DFDOUC r 0 our pagf Evolutionary biology shows that the human genotype is the result of those ancestors who reproduced with greater frequency than others Current behavior is probably the result of selective forces that occurred in the Pleistocene For example a man trying to have sex with many women all while avoiding parental investment is not doing so because he wants to quotincrease his fitnessquot but because the psychological framework that evolved and thrived in the Pleistocene never went away Naturalistic Fallacy and Genetic Determinism Naturalistic Fallacy the error of deriving what ought to be from what is Creating an evolutionary explanation of a behavior in humans does notjustify the behavior or make it 39 HOW moms Inc errO sumess universal natural a man you show 90 and have so w vorupm Genetic Determinism idea that behavior is unalterable programmed and unchangeable This idea is untrue we are not saying that because a behavior may be selected for it is inevitable or acceptable What is Sexuality What is Sexuality How people experiencaand express themselves as sexual beings Biologically sexuality can encompass sexual intercourse and sexual contact in all its forms Sociologically it can cover the cultural political and legal aspects Philosophically it can span the moral ethical theological spiritual or religious aspects How do we determine sexuality In prehistory on 5 1T23 x9usorlvgin393rfanism Before writing am 9 b39q m Biology of the body sexual selection Art and symbolism After writing Literature as well as art Prehistoric Sexuality Earliest evidence appears after the increase in symbolic th 0 Venus of Willendorf 24 22 kya accompanying early modern humans carved by romance 39x QHIng goddesg nonOLQFinod mac HohleFels Germany 3540kya Sexuality in the Ancient Mediterranean concept of what activities and sensations are quotsexualquot is historically determined In ancient writings and art there are accounts of STD s Menstruation Circumcision Contraception The Hebrews 1000 200 BC liheebrewBibleE 9mm Rules about sexual behavior Tales of sexual misconduct Tales of marital love I I Acknowledges the 39 erH39u v1 039 1 quothwunwtm u m A u I i 2 am quotAquot u q ts I I 39 guv w vvnquotl wu nqM I ah a r 39 quot39 39 VWLus mw in am am w V nrup unv W1uVQNHm l Phi 39 m rquotv wlwwvwvwb n3 aquot N VH T I un V wwuw r I I l Iunexr Hng 39 ww mnnmha In marital relations 39 H N IMquot39 l 0113 nmquymm Minnv 13919 l unrm myquot The Greeks 1000 200 BC WlLDcrazv Distinguish between love and sex Aphrodite Eros One of the few major civilizations to institutionalize homosexuality PederastyOler 0 ogrqg Men and the male form were homo idealized x heRoman S 5 O O B C A D 7 O O n Pompeii Marriageand sexual relations were viewed as a means to improve one s economic and social standing few restrictions about sexuality ri of porinore prostiimion India Beginning abOUt Hinduism Karma Patriarchal social system Kama Sutra Wm 1039 Sex Love Family NO39l consiOLQrod porn China Beginning about 200 BC Tao yin Female yang quotCMQ Sexuality is a natural procreative process Yin and yang equally necessary therefore men and women more equal r 39 POIYQamy WWQQ Meme Peru 100800 AD Known for rich iconography and monumental architecture Huaca del sol and Huaca del Iuna are some of the first preCclumbian structures in Peru gt site of human sacrifice Early Christianity Beginning about 50 AD Jesus Strict was liberal in his thinking about sexuality St Paul and later followers established the Christian view of sexuality highest love was the love of God ideal situation was celibacy The legacy of early Christianity was a general association of sexuality with sin The Middle Ages 5m 500 AD 1400 AD Early in Period All sex outside of marriage was considered sinful and even certain marital acts were forbidden Late in Period new ideas about women were brought back by the Crusaders 39 from Islamic lands 39 romang ConslerQd Thomas Aquinas smu msggg Om natural and unnatural salt acts emf39UI Islam About 500 AD Drew from Jewish and Christian roots and added Arab tribal beliefs 8th and 12th centuries was the most advanced society in the world newly developed system of mathematics Arabic numbers most sophisticated techniques of medicine warfare and science Muslim societies have strong rules of modesty restricts sex to the marital union exclusively harems OlrQ polruorcnaIMusogqmsnc sonng The Renaissance Beginning 1300 AD CQMQHQS QlolVothd In 00013 Began in Italy Focused on human beings and their place in the world New views of sensuality and women s roles in society Later in period there was backlash against women s sensuality he Reformati o n i Beginning 1500 AD Western Europe log ue 0 9 Martin Luther EB39Q D QQWM R JF 10 mm founded Protestantism marital love blessed sexuality a natural function JOhnCalVin mm amp WlFQ OTI39Q QQUCIIQ women were men s partners in all things marital union primarily a social and sexual relationship The Enlightenment amp Victorian Era remotes Enlightenment Qlea39l Qd Beginning about 1700 AD Sexual pleasure was considered natural and desirable Victorian Era 18374 901 no sex tCJlK FDA 01c Publicly sexual attitudes became more conservative Privately were not as conservative pornography adultery and prostitution were common The Colonies Beginning about 1600 QTEICT Puritans severe sanctions for sexual transgressions death penalty entire community was responsible for upholding morality The Early United States 1700 s 1800 s quot p39gml Late 1700 s sexual attitudes became more liberal Slavery had an impact on sexual conduct Despite harsh conditions strong sense of morality within the slave community Settlers used the sexuality of minorities as an excuse to disdain or oppress them Native Americans Milo Cl0hinqpromiscuoug Mexicans UnCllll20d The 19th Century Free Love Movement Saw marriage as the sexual slavery of women Mormons members practice polygamy Haroms Medical Model of Sexuality sexual health SCI39QWWC SWde 01 SQX Comstock Act of 1873 prohibited the mailing of obscene lewd lascivious and indecent writing or advertisements repealed in Iqu39e The 20th Century Social Hygiene Movement virtuous women catching STDs from husbands who frequented prostitutes blood tests before marriage Police actions against prostitutes Sexology Afred Kinsey interviewed pQOplQ about 89X sex more important than originally thought Masters amp Johnson Masters or cox studied the physiology of sexual response The 20th Century cont mono comm WOULD The Sexual Revolution romale 39 1920s0Flapper Eraeowor woman 1960 s San Franolsco Home mwmn re Feminism Women s suffrage movement birth control entitled to sexual satisfaction L existing relations of the sexes were exploitive The 20th Century cont Gay Liberation WWII hostile environment f to homosexuals 3 39 Stonewall Riot 90 00 quot4 Q 1969 NY Greenwich Village Queer Theory 19908 Recognition of homosexuality as a legitimate sexual orientation nO CI ChOlCQ Arguing that all sexual minorities have a right to sexual happiness 21St Century S KQWQOl INDIch OF boang Rise of plastic surgery Unnatural images of beauty Photoshop images in mass media Internet Pornography Free available The Sex Industloy one of the oldest professions China is the world s largest exporter of sex toys and novelties with an estimated 1000 factories involved in the manufacture of adult healthcare products Germany s legal sex industry is estimated to make 18 billion annually 2006 Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality A theory is a set of assumptions principles or methods that helps a researcher understand the nature of a phenomenon being studied H QI Q Is no singlet sexual Wong Evolutionary Perspectives Biological theory sexual behavior is primarily a biological Sociobiology Evolutionary Psychology sexual behaviors are result of psychological mechanisms and environmental influences Psychological Theories Psychoanalytic theory SQX driVQ ldEgo superego libido psychosexural development erogenous zones Sigmund Freud Social Learning theory oodipal Loomle classical conditioning 9quot we rewardpunishment Cognitive theory Our thoughts are responsible for our behaV39OrS wrm wo nin QXCI39TQG daexcims ue Sociological Perspectives amp soxuorl All scoletles regulate sexuality bQWQMT gg g What is deemed appropriate behavior depends on the culture Symbolic Interaction Theory Sexual behavior is the result of prior learning lhTQFQGIOlLSChQOlOnV QlBQ OH Reiss s Theory Sexuality is linked to kinship power and ideology SUNDOW wanna come up 62 drin I4 309 sex Social Messages About Sexuality Agents of socialization Ex religion family school peers media Ideals of a culture What we say we do Actual reality What we really do Are they the same or different Why NOf HQ SOIMQ ex SQX 5 mrrioge The Origins of Sex The primary explanation of sex and sexuality then will be examined through natural selection specifically sexual selection The main force driving sexual selection is the instinct to pass on genes to the next generation humans are a DI DOUC39l39 or natural QQIQC HOI What is Sex sexual activityunmrrourgc qwdlia either of the two categories male or female a process of combining and mixing genetic traits Sperm For lilacs egg mamtum Cf QQM IICQ polar body nucleus acrosome Sex jelly coat mitochondria yolk droplets Ovum am 0 www5cience aidnet process of combining and mixing genetic traits specialized cells gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from both parents Chromosomes are passed on from each parent to their offspring in this process Some Helpful Definitions m amp one one QHQI QFFOM Wm DOG An allele is one of two or more forms of the DNA sequence of a particular gene 0W 15390quot Q39b39W The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell an organism or an individual usually with reference to a specific character under consideration A phenotype is any observable characteristic or trait of an organism such as its morphology development biochemical or physiological properties behavior and products of behavior genotype environment gt phenotype phkjSlC Cll aoroctoris cs The Riddle of Sex Danvin s Theory of Natural Selection There is variation among individuals There is competition for survival Those with favorable traits survive and reproduce The favorable traits get passed down to the next generation Adaptation Adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat takes place over many generations Structural adaptations are physical features of an organism Behavioural adaptations are composed of inherited behaviour chains andor the ability to learn DGSQO on meVloOr Gregor Mendel unit of heredity in a living organism Genes amp Natural Selection pollen Phenotype Oz Genotype Alleles Q Dominant Q B Recesslye pist BB Heritability 9 Q Q Bb b Understanding Genetic Variability The Punnett square A summary of every possible combination of one maternal allele with one paternal allele for each gene being studied Named after Reginald C Punnett Genetics OHQFS VOll lClbllHlj amounggr individUOIIS Mendel s Basic Genetics Genes are being passed down from parent to o spnng Law of Segregation the parental geneitiifc s split into haploid gamete cells sperm and egg an offspring receives 23 chromosomes from each parent 50 of the genes from each parent ya amp uC MOM 1300 llientrmere llirni l 2 w How Does a Gene Reprod uce ame f segment 1quot I39lliil j tiimt cutieE for a trail Chromosomes Elmwarms strand of DNA in the cell A A nucleus that carries the genes Meiosis cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms Recombination Gene mixing v 9 Fitness reproductivesuccess 4 or oFrsprmg kgoo nave more more emceerut Intraspecific selection 1 2 competition vlithin a species or group Interspecific selection mp Charge competition petween 2 different species or groups for resources Why Sex The Riddle of Sex Why did sex evolve or why is it maintained With sex one passes on only 50 of one s genes a Cthl While asexual reproduoers parthenogenesis pass on 100 The Costs of Sex With sex one must search out a mate One risks injury fighting if male or in the middle of a fight or coerced if female One can contract sexually transmitted disease gm One can be eaten by predator during sex Recombination breaks up successful genotypes The Riddle of Sex Some switch from asexual to sexual reproduction under certain circumstances Strawberries some grasses aphids gall wasps sea anemones slim mold starfish worms Often asexual when reach habitat puddle once crowded switch to sex to produce offspring who will disperse to seek habitat Komodo Dragon Can reproduce parthenogeneticall Y When no male around The Riddle of Sex Main difference between asexual and sexual reproduction offspring from sex are varied while asexual are clones this suggests a reason for sex The Red Queen Hypothesis It takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place Popularized in the book The Red Queen by Matt Ridley Term coined by evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen The Red Queen Hypothesis When produce clones parasites and pathogens of various kinds can exploit offspring effectively because they have adapted to the parent s genotype With sex offspring are all different from parent and each other so pathogens must begin anew each generation sex allows one to run to stay in place in arms race The Red Queen Hypothesis Bet hedging Diversity the principle behind investment for the future By only passing on 50 of your genes you are betting more offspring will survive Strategies of the Sexes Gametes that are small numerous and cheap males Gametes that are large rare and costly females Disruptive selection can produce two quite different gametes and sexes
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