Week 1 Anatomy notes
Week 1 Anatomy notes PHCL2600
Popular in Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I
Popular in Pharmaceutical Sciences
This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Legacy Tanner on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL2600 at University of Toledo taught by Williams,F in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I in Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Chapter 1 Frequently used de nitions for anatomical planes 0 000000000 0000 Sagittal divide left from right Transverse divide top from bottom Frontal aka coronal divide front from back Ventral or Anterior front Dorsal or Posterior back Cranial or Superior top or near head Caudal or inferior bottom or near end Super cial near surface Deep farther from surface lpsilateral ipsuhlateralcontralateral sameopposite side Medial towards midline Lateral away from midline Proximal near center of body Distal away from center of body 0 Stem Cell Basics 0 Cell basic unit of all living things Capable of Reproducing through cell division Metabolism o Anabolism process of building molecules up 0 Catabolism process of breaking molecules down Adaptation to environment 0 Cycle to remember starts with few cells to building major systems Early CellsaSpecialized CellsaTissueSAOrgansaSystems 0 Types of cells muscle epithelia connective nerve Red blood cells are connective tissue 0 Muscle Cells and Tissue o Myo brils contractile cells responsible for mechanical forces that keep us moving Pushes thing down by contracting just like the esophagus 0 Types of Muscle Tissue Skeletal muscles striated aka has stripes Cardiac heart striated Smoothinternal organs gut blood vessels not striated Nerve Cells and Tissue o Neurons send and receive impulses o Glia provide support for neurons 0 Nervous tissue CNS central nervous system brain and spinal cord PNS peripheral nervous system anything outside the brand and spinal cord Connective Cells and Tissues o Connective tissue cells are loosely packed o Specialized for various supports in the body Cartilage bone ligaments support Blood transport Fat insulation 0 Types of Connective Dense Regularly arranged lrregularly arranged Loose Fat Cartilage Bone Epithelial Cells and Tissues o Specialized cells and tissues usually closely packed and found in sheets 0 Covers exposed body surfaces 0 Protects secretes lters absorbs 0 Examples Skin Intestine 0 Types Squamous found in skin Columnar Cuboidal transition type of cells Pseudostrati ed Columnar Organs 0 When you combine 2 or more tissues to perform the same function you get an organ Heartmuscle epithelia nerves connective tissue all found in the heart Brain Kidney o Stomach has serous membrane on the outside epithelial cells on the inside and smooth muscle tissue layers below the serous membrane They work together to release enzymes to break down food and turn the stomach to produce chime Organ System 0 2 or more organs to perform a speci c function is an organ system Cardiovascular system is the heart blood vessels and capillary beds and blood itself Renal system is the kidneys bladder urethra and the ureters Human Beings 0 When one has all organ systems together you get a human being 0 Chemistry of the Cell 0 Chemicals found in the cell H20 80 cells are 80 or more water Proteins15 Lipids3 Nucleic Acids1 Carbohydrates1 Proteins 0 Made up of amino acids 0 Structure Primaryamino acids linked in a chain Secondarywhen amino acids come close to each other and form a loop band or sheet Tertiarywhen the loops and bends come together and form a functional protein all secondary structures put together Quaternary2 proteins coming together and folding around each other and becoming functional example hemoglobin4 come together to function together Lipids 0 Also called fats insoluble in water 0 Types Fatty acids Phospholipids Steroids stabilize membrane in cholesterol Glycolipids lipids with a sugar on them 0 Nucleic Acids 0 Types DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid RNAribonucleic acid 0 Also found in signaling pathways and as coenzymes coenzymes allow metabolism to run smoother Carbohydrates 0 Also known as sugars used for energy and energy storage 0 Starch is 2 sugars put together 0 Types Monosaccharidesglucose Polysaccharidesglycogen Parts of a cell 0 Nucleus Chromosomes DNA Nucleoli holds ribosomal RNA 0 Cytoplasm Inclusions Organelles 0 Cell membrane Nucleus 0 Where DNA and RNA are made 0 Surrounded by a nuclear membrane called an envelope Composed of 2 membranes separated by a space perinuclear space outer membrane continuous with ER 2 membranes join in places to form nuclear pores openings where molecules such as RNA and proteins can go through 0 Nuclear pores 0 Small molecules ions small proteins will proceed through the pores by passive diffusion 0 Large molecules RNA large proteins need assistance to get through the opening Importexport signals interact with proteins at the surface of the pore to wider it allowing more room for movement in and out of the pore complex Linked together proteins create a pore Chromatin and chromosomes 0 Same stuff different form Chromatin less condensed made up of proteins called histones DNA and ancillary proteins Wrapped like a string of pearls with each pearl being DNA wrapped around a histone called a nucleosome Large gaps between these nucleosomes is free or linked DNA approx 2030 million nucleosomes per cell nucleus 0 By mg per million DNA is more dense than synthetic rubber 0 Types of chromatin Euchromatin thin extended chromatin which is where RNA synthesis is taking place Heterochromatin very condensed chromatin DNA is not actively synthesizing RNA Nucleolus 0000 No membrane 1 or more per nucleous closely associated with the chromatin granules rich in ribosomal RNA rRNA proteins are created in the cytoplasm enter the nucleus associate with rRNA in the nucleolus then leave as a subunit of a ribosome o nucleoplasm is space between chromatin and nucleolus Cytoplasm 0 Everything outside the nucleous Includes Cytosol uid also called cytoplasmic matrix Salts Organelles Molecules o Intracellular uid all uid in cell including cytosol and uid inside organelles Organelles 0 An organized reproducible permanent subcellular structure 0 Can be membrane bound or not 0 Provides speci c functions for the cell 0 Nucleus can be considered a control organelle Endoplasmic reticulum ER 0 Series of attened sacs made up of 2 opposing membranes which enclose a small space lled with uid 0 Space is continuous with the nuclear membranes Perinuclear space 0 Attached to nucleus Membrane of nucleus becomes ER 0 Rough ER Granular has ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane Ribosomes synthesize proteins for Secretion enzymes hormones Lysosomes digestive enzymes Incorporation into the membrane cell or organelle How does this occur Ribosomes are free in the cytoplasm and start the protein synthesis 0 Some amino acids are recognized as a signal recognition particle SRP The SRP directs the entire complex to the ER to nish protein synthesis Interacts with docking protein SRP is recycled cleaved by signal peptidase Other things done by RER Carbs are added to proteins to form glycoproteins in the lumen of ER 0 This could signal where proteins go Membrane of ER also synthesizes lipids for cell other membranes and addition to proteins to form lipoproteins 0 Smooth ER Ribosomes not attached Continuation of rough ER Site of synthesis of Lipids triglyceride phospholipid steroid Metabolism and detoxi cation of foreign substances drug metabolism in liver Ribosomes 0 Small particles that are free or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum Free are sites of protein synthesis of cytosolic proteins enzymes 0 Not membrane bound 0 Contain 65 rRNA and 35 protein Protein component is synthesized in cytoplasm comes to nucleus and associates with rRNA in the nucleolus Subunits migrate out and form ribosome in cytoplasm Golgi apparatus 0 Discovered by Italian microscopist Camillo Golgi 0 Collection of attened sacs and vesicles made of a single membrane surrounded by small vesicles 0 Sacs called cysternae o Golgi stack is approximately 6 cysternae o The faces of Golgi Cis or forming oriented close to RER membrane bound transition vesicles shuttle molecules to Golgi from RER Trans or mature faces plasma membrane membrane bound vesicles form on the trans face and carry newly made and packaged molecules to the membrane for export o How do the molecules know where to go 10 This involves snare proteins 0 Some vesicles have a speci c vsnare protein o It is attached to a particular tsnare protein on the target membrane 0 Different snare proteins allow the proper routing of proteins to different target membranes 0 Other functions of Golgi Involved in last stages of protein production modi es by sulfation and fatty acid addition Packages proteins in vesicles for secretion or targeting to the membrane Packages and forms lysosomes Vesicles stay in the cell 0 Recycling anyone The membrane of the RER is made into vesicles which in turn carry product to the Golgi and become part of that membrane Eventually this membrane is used to export protein to the cell membrane and the RER membrane is nally part of the cell membrane Lysosomes o Membrane bound structures 0 Irregular vary in size 0 300400 per liver cell liver cells are the most active cells in the body 0 Formed by Golgi and RER 11 12 Contains many digestive enzymes for the breakdown of lipids Proteins RNA DNA carbohydrates Enzymes are active at pH5 this is maintained by ATP dependent H pump Membrane is impermeable to enzymes Leakage of 1 ysosome is ok cell is protected by buffered pH of cytoplasm If more than 1 leaks pH5 and enzymes are active Newly formed ysosomes would be called primary ysosomes and only contain enzymes To lower pH in cell pump more H into the cell FuncUon Digestion of substances by phagocytosis Substance is pinched off with a bit of membrane to form vesicle phagosome Also called endocytosis Phagosome fuses with primary ysosome to form secondary ysosome which is a digestive vacuole Stuff left over after digestion can be exocytosed absorbed or left residual body Autophagy primary ysosome fuses with a vesicle containing worn out old cell parts 0 Products of autophagy are recycled or removed from the cell Autolysis occurs when multiple ysosomes rupture and can t be repaired Self destruction upon injury o Destruction of extracellular material release of enzymes outside cell bone resorption and release Ca2 There are lysosome storage diseases like TaySachs disease 0 This involves an enzyme or other protein missing that allows for proper function of the lysosome o TaySachs mental retardation incurred because of lipid accumulation in the brain leads to blindness then death at 23 years old Peroxisomes 0 Carry on detoxi cation reactions and oxidation reactions 0 Membrane bound 0 Contain enzymes which can break down reactive substances H202 hydrogen perioxide 02 superoxide radical OH hydroxyl radical o Peroxisomes Catalase Enzyme contained within the peroxisomes that breaks down hydrogen peroxide Enzymes found in cytosol by free ribosomes Migrate and enclosed in vesicles in smooth ER 13 14 Produces water and oxygen which are harmless to the cell Necessary because H202 is known to irreversibly damage the cell 2H2022H20 02 Mitochondria 000 0 Energy producing organelles of the cell Outer membrane is smooth lnner membrane has folds called cristae Space between membranes is called the intermembrane space Matrix uid Number of cristae and mitochondria per cell is an indicator of metabolic activity liver cell has approximately 16001800 mitochondriacell which makes it the most metabolically active cell Contain DNA RNA and proteins in the matrix RNA can be used to synthesize protein but can t synthesize all proteins needed by mitochondria Mitochondria isn t a cell because it can t replicate on its own the cell has to tell it to Can divide with help of cytosolic proteins in case more ATP production is needed energy needed Numbers of mitochondria Ovum provide mitochondria for any zygotes formed in fertilization Sperm doesn t do this Inheritance of mitochondria is strictly internal to just mitochondrial DNA Mutations in mitochondrial DNA can lead to disease states 0 FuncUons Outer membrane lipid metabolism lnner membrane insoluble enzymes from Krebs cycle and electron transport Matrix water soluble enzymes from Krebs cycle fatty acid oxidation Cytoskeletonmictrotubules O O O O 0 Long hollow structure 24 nm wide Made of stacked rings of alpha and beta tubulin These globular proteins form dimers These structures are dynamic in that they are constantly forming and disassembling Connect to centrosome in a cell Microtubules Part of the cytoskeleton Provides tracks for movement of cellular organelles secretory vesicles mitochondria Associated with kinesin and dynein which are proteins that move organelles along microtubules Kinesin and dynein move particles to opposite ends of mictrotubule Form cilia and agella which protrude from the cell membrane 0 Drug therapy affecting microtubules 15 16 o Taxol anticancer drug made from yew tree binds to microtubules and stabilizes them 0 Because microtubules can t disassemble and form again internal organelle traf c stops 0 Result Cell death
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