Week one (24-28 August 2015) General Biological Concepts and Introduction to Ecology
Week one (24-28 August 2015) General Biological Concepts and Introduction to Ecology BIOL 2040
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Daniel Pavuk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology I in Biological Sciences at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Week 1 24 Aug28 Aug 2015 Biology 2040 General Biological Concepts 1 Fundamental Characteristics of living organisms 2 The Cell Theory 1 All organisms are made of cell 2 All cells come from preexisting cells 3 Cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function of all living things 3 Evolution everything in biology can be explained by evolutionary theory 4 Adaptations of organism survive in environments at optimal rates Evolution has led to those adaptations 5 Levels of biological organization hierarchal structure to Earth s life Biosphereincludes living things and nonliving parts in the living s environment 6 Ecosystem dynamics 1 Energy ows from higher to lower energy levels most ecosystems rely on solar energy 2 matter nutrients cycle there s only so much matter on Earth 7 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid every cell in our bodies has DNA humans have a genome gametes have half of What other cells have Why do organisms occur in speci c habitats Asian leaf frog looks like a dead leaf to avoid predators camou age only works when certain behaviors are performed Staying motionless Polar bears very vulnerable habitat glaciers are melting adaptations for cold habitat black skin absorbs solar radiation hollow hair insulation fat insulation wide paws for walking on ice a lot of hairfur small ears to retain heat behaviors group hugging Cacti dry environment less stomata gas exchange waXlike coating cuticle altered photosynthetic pathway roots soak up water Lab Recitation Causation vs correlation cause and effect or coincidence Dependent variable measured variable Independent variable manipulated only want one want replication Control set independent variable to zero Control variable remains constant throughout experiment Class Properties and Processes of Life 1 Reproduction 2 Evolutionary adaptation 3 Response to stimuli 4 Homeostasis maintain constant internal conditions like water and ion content temperature pH g Sweating is a form of regulation 5 Growth and development 6 Order cell organization 7 Energy processing autotrophs and heterotrophs Levels of biological organization atoms gt biosphere Range microscopic gt Biosphere 1 Biosphere all living and their environmentshabitats nonliving largest level 2 Ecosystem all living and abiotic components g Deciduous forest 3 Communities all biotic within ecosystem Overall community all biotic in ecosystem Component community tree mammal fungal etc 4 Populations one species group interactions between populations and within population 5 Organisms make up populations 6 Organs and organ systems make up organisms Organ collection of different tissues working towards a certain function g Leaf Organ system collection of organs for a common function g Shoots and root systems 7 Tissues group of cells working together for certain function Q Epidermis protects from outside gas exchange 8 Cells need specific set of conditions 9 Organelles g Chloroplast 10 Molecules made up by atoms that are covalently bonded make up organelles Lab Experimental design dependent variable measured counted observed can have multiple g Time to germinate growth rate ower Independent variable manipulated or changed only one because you want to know which factor is affecting the dependent variable g Soil compaction Control variables variables that are kept constant Class Ch 44 Introduction to Ecology What s ecologv The scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment distribution and abundance of organisms what organisms are where and why Distribution determined by temperature humidity dwelling type etc Modern Ecologv old observe patterns in distribution and abundance Modern observation and experimentation manipulate various variables Q Discovery of new frog species in 2008 Cornell University undergraduate Michael Grundler discovered Paedophryne swiforum and Paedophryne amauensis very small example of an endemic species localized geographic distribution Raises ecological questions What environmental factors limiting distribution What biotic components are there predators etc Scope of Ecological Research which scales addressed Giant snake problem Everglades travelers took them home and couldn t handle them Hurricane Andrew took out a reptile storage facility Global Ecologv Biosphere all living things on Earth plus their environments Research question How does ocean circulation affect the distribution of marine crustaceans Landscape Ecologv A landscapeseascape collection mosaic of different types of ecosystems exchange of energymaterialsorganisms between ecosystems Research question To what extent do trees lining a river serve as a dispersal corridor Ecosystem Ecology energy ow and matter cycle how s energy owing through the ecosystem Recycling of dead Research question What factors affect photosynthetic output in a grassland Ecosvstem Dynamics Community Ecology living in ecosystem interactions between living in a community Research question What factors affect a community s plant diversity Population Ecologv Species in same area at same time factors in uence population size overtime Research Question What factors affect reproductive rate Organismal Ecologv includes evolutionary physiological and animal behavioral ecologies how organisms meet environmental challenges polar bears Research question How do hammerhead sharks choose mates
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