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Week 1 Philosophy Notes

by: William Bartek

Week 1 Philosophy Notes PHIL 1000 - 01

William Bartek
General Introduction to Philosophy
Matthew McGrath

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About this Document

These are notes from the first week of class on Logic and Argumentation, containing definitions and examples of how to formulate a philosophical argument.
General Introduction to Philosophy
Matthew McGrath
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by William Bartek on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see General Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 08/29/15
Philosophy 1000 Logic and Argumentation Argument A sequence of statements Conclusion the last claim in an argument sequence Premise Statements asserted without proof in the context of the present argument but may be supported by arguments elsewhere Ex 1 The Bible says that God exists premise 2 Whatever the Bible says is true premise 3 Therefore God exists conclusion It doesn t matter whether you believe the premises to be true or not you are only supposing if they are true in the context of the argument Intermediate Conclusion A conclusion to previous premises which is then used in future premises Ex 1 The Bible has predicted many historical events premise that have come to pass 2 Therefore whatever the Bible says is true conc from 1 3 The Bible says God exists premise 4 Therefore God exists conc from 2 amp3 II I o If a sentence begins with quothence therefore or so that s a clue that it functions as a conclusion 0 If a sentence begins with quotLet us assume that or quotIt seems obvious that this is a clue that it functions as a premise Validity An argument is valid if and only if it s absolutely impossible for its premises to be true and its conclusion false When an argument is valid we say the premises entail or imply the conclusion or that the conclusion follows from the premises Proof A valid argument from premises known to be true Sound Argument A valid argument with true premises Formally Valid When an argument is an instance of a scheme all of whose instances are valid Reconstructing an Argument Steps 1 Identify the conclusion Find the author s conclusion inside the prose 2 Interpret the conclusion Figure out what the author is trying to say 3 Reconstruct the argument Put the argument in an easier form to read 4 Assess the argument Determine validity and soundness Tips 0 When reconstructing an argument in a philosophical text you should produce a valid argument for the author s conclusion from the author s stated premises 0 Schematic letters Replace the details with symbolic letters gt Every number is an abstract object gt Every F is G gt Abstract objects are not located in space gt Gs are not H gt So numbers aren t located in space gt So F5 are not H Valid Argument Forms Modus Ponens o If P then Q o P 0 Therefore Q Modus Tollens o If P then Q 0 Not Q 0 Therefore not P Hypothetical Svllogism o If P then Q o If Q then R 0 Therefore if P then R Disiunctive Svllogism 0 Either P or Q o NotP 0 Therefore Q


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