Anthropology 33 - Lectures 6 & 7 (04/22/14 - 04/24/14)
Anthropology 33 - Lectures 6 & 7 (04/22/14 - 04/24/14)
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Lecture 6 042214 is language just an instinct Language is not just any cultural invention but the product ofspecial human instinct Steven Pinker o Believes that ifyou have proper brain parts you will have language a Thought is neurobiological prelinguistic universal phenomenon a Language is a biological adaptation o Assumes that if you have learned one language you have learned them all independent of culture Blueprint for Grammatical Rules Model 0 Children will reinvent complex language gt supports idea that language is inherent 0 Go from simple syntax in very complex sentences and make them more grammatically sophisticated 0 Not about education or social upbringing but about having the right genes and bits of brain Genie feral child who had no exposure to people or society o Discovered at age 13 almost mute with a vocabulary of only 20 words 0 Even after years of language therapy she could not apply grammar in meaningful ways 0 Could not reach anguage explosion of normal child gt reiects idea that language is inherent Competence vs Performance o Competence having cognitive knowledge about words and grammar 0 Language acquisition learning grammar and vocab inner circle o Language socialization becoming competent member of society by communicating along social norms I into language grammar vocab register how to speak to whom I through language verbally educating about speci c social norms o Performance actually applying the knowledge to produce meaningful sentences and communicate in society Four zones of Interpersonal Space 1 Intimate within touching distance 2 Personal 24 feet 3 Social 412 feet 4 Public over 12 feet Proximity to others determines how we communicate with them Ex whisper when in intimate zone Appropriate interpersonal space determined by social interactions Culture is a way of taking Shirley Brice Heath Measuring language socialization through storytelling to expose the inadequacy of 1 Dichotomy between oral and literary traditions a One is not better than the other but instead they play off of each other 2 Unilinear models of child language development a Children learn in multiple ways and differently depending on their culture 3 Dichotomy between types of cognitive learning styles a Organizing children based on predetermined models Describes three case studies of how kids deal with storytelling 1 Maintown high level of comprehension of details and ability to relate story across contexts a Represent the Standard of the education system from middleclass families b Learn what explanations identifying topics categorizing them in the brain and using them in diff context c Learn reason explanations affective commentary about why or how the event occurred d Recall details and make connections between topics make universal generalizations outside of reality 2 Roadville manage details but cannot identify with the story and make personal comments a Raised to understand through simple explanations and visual stimuli colors textures shapes b Represent shy children who lack a lot of social interaction c Recall details but cannot make connections relate topics to personal experience d Need to learn reason explanations and link information from books to environment 3 Trackton use story to create context that relates back to knowledge of their own community a Represent children who live in very social communities b Parents ask analogical questions nonspeci c comparisons cannot manage details c Learn from experience not reading very good at reading social cues and communication d Cannot recall details and avoid the facts Focus on reason explanations e Need to learn what explanations Ways of taking culture children learn while growing up about how to act Literacy events occasions in which written language is integral to nature of participants interactions and interpretation 0 Ex Bedtime stories reading cereal boxes interpreting instructions for games and toys Huge disconnect between what children learn in school and what they learn through culture and society Bottom line school Standards focus on using the what and who to infer about how and why 1 Ways of taking and relating at home and at school are the same Maintown 2 Ways of taking and relating at home and at school are not the same TracktonRoadville Heath s Conclusions Chidren s learning way of taking follows community paths of language socialization Children take meaning from stories through literacy events The more similar home and school are the more accessible literacy events are to children Accessibility to literacy events leads to better participation in society o School are catered to the Standard so Maintown children are most successful o Created by historical segregation where the wealthy white community became the Standard Lecture 7 042414 Human communicative interactiontalk is shaped by an interactional ethos grounded in a worldview o lnteractional ethos socialized belief in how I and others should act to include communication o Worldview ones regard of the word way people make sense of what is around them Connection between language and worldview is taught through certain interactional and behavioral routines such as 1 Turn taking how long we wait to speak after someone else is speaking Role playing Acquisition ofsocial skills politeness and ways to act Registers how you tell a story depending on the audience Code switching speaking differently with different people Context act appropriately depending on the situation Interpersonal space how you speak depending on distance from person i Qgt9 F 99 Goffman s Main Point Analyze structural underpinning of changes in footing by examining notions of speaker and listener o Structural way to point out what s happening in conversation at every moment 0 Consisting of all the microactions that facilitate conversation and characterize a conversation Face interaction and talk are permeated by a sense of ritual respect 0 Individual continuously works to maintain face the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact This is the part that makes robots unrealistic because it s the subtle actions that make the difference Not tied to words but the use of the words Preplay micro interactions that begin conversations politely Greetings hi how are you etc Postplay micro interactions that end conversations politely Endings thank you goodbye etc Foo ng 1 Participants face is somehow at issue aliqnment set stance posture proiected self etc 2 Can last as long as a whole conversation or as little as a single word of sentence 3 Can be obvious as a dramatic change in stance or as subtle as slight shift in sound markers 4 Usually codeswitching change in sound marker language pitch volume tone dialect accent Frames gives an interpretive structure to details and highlights how those details are related to one another Frame breaks when new footing comes in to buffer between higher level and some other sustained episode What does it mean to shift your footing Change in footing is change in alignment we take up to ourselves and other present as expressed in the way we manage the production of conversation Social encounter of talk Establish rati ed participants people engaged in conversation 0 Beginning is marked by participants orienting together and bodily addressing one another o End marked by departure o Bracketed by greetings and farewells Goffman Is a conversation only between speaker and listener a Main goal analyze the structural underpinnings Production format means of assessing who has produced the words in a particular instance of speech or writing who is responsible for composing them and who or what body is represented by the words used Speaker 0 O O Hearer O O O Animator person who is talking Author person who wrote words Principal person responsible for the words Rati ed participant recipient of address could be listening or not Eavesdropper not rati ed by eavesdropping Overhearer not rati ed but inadvertently overhearing Bystander not rati ed by has aural access that is known by rati ed Multiple types of social encounters Byplay talk between speaker and unrati ed participant 0 Ex when television actor speaks to audience Crossplay holding the ow in one encounter while participating in another o Ex parents managing conversation with adult and dealing with child Sideplay subordinate interaction outside the dominant communication encounter 0 Ex when a guy looks at a hot girl who walks by while having a conversation with someone else Collusion an attempt to conceal subordinate communication 0 Ex whispering to a neighbor while the professor is lecturing Innuendo speaker directing words to an addressed recipient overlays his remarks with deniable meaning 0 Ex Having secret words that only certain people can understand