Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes 80489 - PSYC 2010 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine Notetaker on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80489 - PSYC 2010 - 002 at Clemson University taught by Jo Anne Jorgensen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Psychology 201 Jorgensen August 28 2015 CHADTE 2 The Research Enterprise in Psychology Test Tips What you DO NOT need to know Personal Application for Chapter 2 Figure 22 Figure 29 p 47 49 Chapter 2 began with discussing that psychology is empirical meaning that it is based on measurable and formulaic observations It then went on to discuss the steps to carry out experimental research Lastly it reminded us of the different biases and problems that can come up if research isn t performed correctly Remember that experimental research allows us to find the causation of an effect on a variable Correlation on the other hand proves nothing but the fact that two variables are somehow related Chapter 2 Steps in Scienti c Investigation I Formulate a fliestahle Hypothesis 2 Select the Research Method and Design the Study example case study experiment survey naturalistic observation etc 3 Collect the Data 4 Analyze the Data and Draco Conclusions 5 Report the Findings Experimental Research I Experiment manipulates a variahle while controlling the others in order to ohserve the change in the second variahle independent variahle manipulated variable dependent variahle second variable that exhibits change experimental group receives some special treatment control group does not receive special treatment 2 Random Assignment Each participant has equal chance of heing assigned to either groupcondition 3 Large Groups 1 2 and 3 are all necessary for an experiment to be carried out Psychology 201 Jorgensen August 28 2015 Correlation versus Causation Correlation exists when two variables are related to each other but cannot demonstrate that the two variables are causally related Is not determined by experimentation example there is a correlation between drowning and ice cream yet we cannot assume that ice cream causes drowning instead we assume that another variable is affecting both in this case it is most likely warm weather kids are more likely to swim and therefore drown in warm weather and are more likely to eat ice cream in warm weather Causation experimentation determines causation or determines what causes the change in the dependent variable Experiments must contain an operational definition there must be a concrete de nition of what is being measure example a study on whether children watching violent tv leads to aggression must de ne aggression by a speci c number of punches kicks or some other measurable standard aggression cannot be de ned as acting angry because that would be too subjective Statistics and Research Population all members of some speci ed group example Americans humans etc Sample a subset of a population example Americans who answer the survey who represent the population of all Americans Sample Bias occurs when sample is not representative of the population Random Sampling people must have an equal chance of being chosen to represent tlse population in an experiment this prevents sampling bias example Experiment cannot be done using only people from the southeast when the population that is to be represented is America Experimenter Bias researclsers expectations in uence tlse outcome example producers on dateline testing whether whites or blacks get better services Problem producers knew they were involved with this experiment and the white producer showed body language of expecting to be helped while the black producer walked in expecting not to be helped quickly Chapter 2 2 Psychology 201 Jorgensen August 28 2015 Not always intentional sometimes unconscious Placeho E ect participants expectations influence the outcome even when they receive a fake treatment Placeho fake treatment Single hlina stua y experimenter knows participant does not know Takes care of placebo effect but not experimenter bias Douhle hlina stua y neither experimenter or participant knows example Dateline could have observed ordinary shoppers who did not know about the study Hypothesis a prediction or a hunch educated guess about the relationship between two or more variables Theory an interrelatea set of concepts used to explain a set of ohservations and make predictions ahout results of future experiments Hypotheses and Theories have to follow falsi ability Falsi ahility a theory must he stated in a way that it can he proved false About Correlations Correlation when two variahles are related to each other Positive Correlation Correlation coe icient measures strength and direction of correlation Correlations range from I to 1 Correlation Sign determines direction Hours Studied per Night 0 Positive Correlation example High School GPA and hours studied If you studied more in high school you most likely had a higher GPA Negative Correlation Negative Correlation O 8 i gt o 0 E 0 0 example Video games and GPA If you played more Video games in high school you g0 g P R u s most likely had a lower GPA a a E H 2 g E 1 mo 8 Chapter 2 3 Psychology 201 Jorgensen August 28 2015 Correlation Strength absolute value of number Porfoor Correlation Porfoor Correlation ll Ranges from 01 OzNoCorrelation I i i o i x l Strongest Association possible Perfect Correlation Statistics Statistics Use of mathematics to organize summarize and interpret numerical data Descriptive organizes and summarizes Central Tendency Mean mathematic average median middle number and mode example average SAT score of an incoming freshman Variability Standard Deviation do not need to know formula Bigger VariabilityBigger Standard Deviations Inferential interprets Plug in numbers and see if there is a difference or not Based on likelihood of chance Statistical Signi cance probability that observed findings are due to chance is very low Chapter 2 4
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