Museum Studies Week 1 Lecture Notes
Museum Studies Week 1 Lecture Notes HP 410
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Downing Notetaker on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HP 410 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Eric Clements in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
410 Introduction to Museum Studies 82515 What is a museum Collections Education Artifacts have power Public entity not for profit always needing money A museum is a permanent institution Permanence Museums must be cared for systematically must have order Specific definitions are in both of the textbooks 82715 History of Museums Clio is the history muse First museum dates back to Egypt to the emperor Ptolemy l around 290BC The Library at Alexandria more like a modern university There has always been a human impulse to collect stuff Most collections at the Louvre were brought back as spoils of war by Napoleon Typically were collections accumulated by the wealthy was more so an accumulation of random stuff Cabinets of curiosities Warfare was a common way for artifacts to be collected looting spoils of war The Italian Renaissance and their trade routes increased wealth in that area especially merchant class Increased wealth equals money to burn Gutenberg movable type increased the availability of books knowledge late 1400s Age of Discovery Collections from Columbus39s expeditions must be housed somewhere Between 1543 and 1620 we see the beginnings of Botanical Gardens These displays were still for the learned scholars and elites The end of the 16th century we see the general acceptance of the organizationdisplay of collections The employment of the first curators and the first dealers Beginning of the interpretations of things by the 1700s The Age of Enlightenment concerned with natural laws which can be deduced empiricism experiment Beginning of taxonomies they start listing things Encourages the preservation and collection of natural history specimens Hans Sloan collector had to have a separate house to place his collections in 1753 upon his death we get the beginnings of the British Museum Ben Franklin saw Sloan39s collection when he was in London Sloan states in his will that the collection be accessible to the public Revolutionary egalitarianism Louvre was Louis the XVI palace taken over by the revolutionaries It was his collection nationalized It was opened as the Free Museum of the Public in 1793 Charles Wilson Peal painted portraits of most of the world leaders his museum had art natural history specimens and cultural artifacts opened to the public in 1786 uses artifacts as the basis for scholarly lectures he popularizes the idea of labeling artifacts he popularized the diorama he liked to display live animals created hands on exhibits He sees that this is entertainment mixed with education 19th century sees the opening of more museums the democratization of the museum rise of nationalism Napoleon was a museums guy museums began to be founded for the glorification of national identity the system does not survive Napoleon s fall 1870s beginning of waves of museums in Asia and Africa First museum in United States 1773 was Museum of South Carolina specific mission was the natural history of South Carolina Promoting the idea of national history is still the main theme nationhood Still a popular theme today ie the National Air and Space Museum great moments in American aviation Problems arise when the nationalist urge clashes with the critical scholarship of historians ie the Enola Gay Late 19th and early 20th century bureaucratization and professionalization of the museum 1846 the founding of the Smithsonian by an Englishman John Smithson Best known of the early preservation movement is Mount Vernon Anne Cunningham starts the saving of Mount Vernon with the Mount Vernon Ladies Association established in 1858 Operated as a shrine to the great man but nowadays as a plantation and agricultural site Worlds first outdoor living history museum is Skansen in 1891 forAmerica is is Colonial Williamsburg 1926 American Historical Association is founded in 1884 Gentlemen scholars were the historians for a long time Phd becomes necessary Artifactual history gets a boost in the 1920s Ford establishes Greenfield Village Greenfield is basically a clusterf of stuff not particularly historical Rockefeller pours money into Colonial Williamburg its mainly a replication it becomes the great center for living history and early archaeology Both places pioneered a lot of new techniques Historical Relativism Carl Becker and the idea of one objective history diversity multiple inputs overthrown in Great Depression 1930s the New Deal Federal Writers Project Oral Histories beginnings of systematic historical preservation and cataloguing and such 1940s and 50s pushes cultural interest and innovations aided by economic boom after WWII The rise of social history The artifact is now being drawn back in Le Mount Vernon and the great house with Mount Vernon and the slave quarters Civil War anniversary creates interest in Civil War Bicentennial increases interest in American history and patriotism Museums begin to have specific subjects whether a person religion or event quarter of visitation is history museums there are more history museums than any other type the hazard of history museums is the lack of cohesive professionalism A profession in the subject is now more or less required you used to learn on the job now you must have academic accredations You need specific excess of knowledge or specific technical knowledge Progressive era begins organization of associations that establish membership lots of programs founded in the 1960s The Museum studies idea really takes off in the late 1960s History of types of Museums
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