AHCDChapter2.pdf AHCD 318
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Petrusevski on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AHCD 318 at Northern Illinois University taught by Jennifer Lichamer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Medical Terminology in Public Health at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Friday August 28 2015 Chapter 2 Body Structure and Directional Terminology Organization of the Human Body It s important to remember that metabolism takes place at the cellular level Let s look at the composition of a cell to see What role its organelles little organs play Cell membrane the thin outer wall that encloses the contents of the cell Cytoplasm the substance that holds the organelles of the cell Cyto means cell While plasm means formation It is a formation inside of the cell Lysosome an organelle that serves a digestive function Lyso means dissolving While some means body Helps dissolve different things for nutrients Ribosome an organelle that is the site of protein formation Ribo means ribose a substance critical in the formation of RNA ribonucleic acid and some again means body This organelle is the site of protein formation in the cell Mitochondrion pl mitochondria organelle that converts nutrients to energy in the presence of oxygen Nucleus control center of the cell holds the DNA deoxyribonucleic acid which contains genetic information Cell Types Muscle cell Long slender brous contract and relax Epithelial cell Friday August 28 2015 Flat line passageways within the body and skin Nerve cell Long brous extensions carry impulses Fat cell aka adipocyte or lipocyte have large empty spaces Tissues tissues are a group of cells working together to do a speci c job Parenchymal vs Stromal parenchymaldoes the work of the system stromalsupportive of the parenchyma The Four Types Of Tissue l Epithelial tissue acts as an internal or external covering for organs most prone to cancer because of contact with the environment Lines internal organs endocrine and exocrine glands outer covering of skin 2 Muscular tissue has the unique ability to contract and relax Voluntary and involuntary 3 Connective tissue has the property of an internal structural network Adipose Cartilage Bone Blood 4 Nervous tissue serves to provide for the transmission of information within the body Also transmits nerve impulses Friday August 28 2015 Organs Termed viscera General medical term for internal organs Are arrangements of various types of tissues For example the heart Endocardium epithelial tissue Myocardium muscular tissue Body Systems Organs are parts of body systems The musculoskeletal system serves to support the body protect internal organs think of the rib cage and move the body The integumentary system is that of the skin Its function is to cover and protect the body from disease The gastrointestinal system is responsible for nourishing the body The urinary system is key in the elimination of nitrogenous waste The reproductive systems are responsible for keeping our genetic material available through the function of reproduction The blood lymphatic and immune systems are responsible for the transportation of nutrients and wastes and protecting the body against disease The cardiovascular system serves to transport blood throughout the body The respiratory system delivers oxygen to cells and removes carbon dioxide Friday August 28 2015 The nervous system along with behavioral health is responsible for the reception and processing of information that is perceived by the organism The special senses eye and ear are responsible for gathering visual and auditory information Finally the endocrine system is responsible for effecting change in the body through the use of chemical messengers termed hormones System Continued Groups of organs working together to perform compleX functions Organization of the human body Homeostasis homeo stasis Energy conversion Catabolism Catabolism Takes place in the mitochondria Anabolism Anabolism Takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum Metabolism Metabolism The total chemical process occurring in a cell Friday August 28 2015 Metabolism anabolism catabolism SpecialistsSpecialties Cytologystudy of cells Cytologist someone Who specializes in the study of cells Histologystudy of tissues Histologistsomeone Who specializes in the study of tissues Anatomystudy of the structure of the body Anatomistsomeone Who specializes in the study of the structure of the body Physiologystudy of body functions Physiologistsomeone Who specializes in the study of body functions CONTINUED Pathology is the study of disease Patho is a combining form for disease The specialist is a pathologist If you are an individual Who loves healthcare can tolerate blood and guts but are not terribly good with patients you might want to consider pathology You ll be looking at cells tissues organs or dead bodies The term biopsy comes from bio meaning life or liVing and opsy meaning a Viewing Hence a biopsy is a Viewing of liVing tissue Biopsies are important as tissue samples to diagnose diseases The term necropsy is the opposite of biopsy Here necro means dead or death A necropsy is the Viewing of dead tissue Another name for this is an autopsy a much more common term but Friday August 28 2015 one that is etymologically a little more obscure Auto means self The meaning comes from the pathologist him or herself viewing the tissue not the dead person Anatomic Position is the frame of reference that is used to name the surface anatomy To be in anatomic position an individual is standing erect face forward arms at sides with palms facing forward and toes pointed forward Ventral Surface Anatomy Head and Neck Buccal means pertaining to the cheek Bucco is a combining form for the cheek Cephalic means pertaining to the head Cephalo means the head Cervical means pertaining to the neck Cervico means the neck But Be careful In the female reproductive system cervico refers to the neck of the cerviX Pay attention to the context of what you are reading to understand which neck is being talked about Cranial means pertaining to the skull Cranio means the skull Facial means pertaining to the face Facio means the face Another Be Careful Don t confuse facio with fascio fascia the tough outer covering of the muscles Frontal literally means pertaining to the front In the context of surface anatomy it refers to the forehead Mental means pertaining to the chin when you are talking about surface anatomy of the face The mental foramina are small holes in the bone of the lower jaw that provide an entranceexit for blood vessels and nerves Friday August 28 2015 Nasal means pertaining to the nose Naso is a combining form for the nose Ocular means pertaining to the eye Oculo is a combining form for the eye Oral means pertaining the mouth Oro is a combining form for the mouth Otic means pertaining to the ear Oto is a combining form for the ear Ventral Surface Anatomy Trunk Abdominal means pertaining to the abdomen Abdomino is one of the combining forms for the abdomen Don t confuse the abdomen with the stomach The abdomen is a region not an organ AXillary means pertaining to the armpit AXillo is the combining form for the armpit Coxal means pertaining to the hip Coxo is a combining form for the hip Deltoid means resembling a triangle Which describes this muscle that covers the shoulder Delt o is the combining form for the deltoid muscle Inguinal means pertaining to the groin Inguino is a combining form for the groin Mammary means pertaining to the breast Mammo is a combining form for the breast PelVic means pertaining to the pelVis The combining form for pelVis is pelVi Stemal means pertaining to the sternum the breastbone Stemo is a combining form for the sternum Thoracic means pertaining to the chest Thoraco is a combining form for the chest Umbilical means pertaining to the navel belly button Umbilico is a combining form for the umbilicus Friday August 28 2015 Ventral Surface Anatomy Arms Antecubital means pertaining to the front ante of the elbow cubito Brachial means pertaining to the arm Brachio is a combining form for the arm Carpal means pertaining to the wrist Carpo is a combining form for the wrist Manual is a combining form for the hand Manu is a combining form for the hand Palmar means pertaining to the palm of the hand Palmo is a combining form for the palm Digital means pertaining to a whole nger or toe Digito is a combining form for the nger or toe Ventral Surface Anatomy Legs Crural means pertaining to the leg Cruro is a combining form for the leg Femoral means pertaining to the thigh The femur is the thighbone Femoro means the thighbone Patellar means pertaining to the knee Patella is a combining form for the knee and kneecap Pedal means pertaining to the foot Pedo is a combining form for the foot Plantar means pertaining to the sole of the foot Planto is a combining form for the sole Tarsal means pertaining to the ankle Tarso is a combining form for the ankle and the tarsals ankle bones Dorsal Surface Anatomy Dorsal back Think dolphins have a dorsal n on their back Acromial means pertaining to the shoulder Acromio is a combining form for the shoulder or the acromion process Friday August 28 2015 Dorsal means pertaining to the back Dorso is a combining form for the back Gluteal means pertaining to the buttocks Gluteo is a combining form for the buttocks Lumbar means pertaining to the loins or the lower back Lumbo means lower back or loins Nuchal means pertaining to the neck Nucho means neck Perineal means pertaining to the perineum This is the space between the genitals and the anus Sacral means pertaining to the sacrum As you can see the sacrum is below the lumbar region Sacro means the sacrum Be careful here Sarco looks very similar but means esh Scapular means pertaining to the scapula shoulder blade Vertebral means pertaining to the vertebrae the bones in the back Vertebro means the vertebrae Arms and the Legs Olecranal means pertaining to the elbow Olecrano is a combining form for the elbow Popliteal means pertaining to the back of the knee Popliteo is a combining form for the back of the knee Sural means pertaining to the calf Suro is a combining form for the calf Positional and Directional Terms Anterior antero ant Ventral ventro Posterior postero pos Friday August 28 2015 Dorsal dorso anterior posterior Anteroposterior and posteroanterior Anteroposterior means from front to back Posteroanterior means from back to front Supine means belly up Prone means ON the belly superior means upward inferior mean downward Medial means pertaining to the middle doesn t it look like that with medio being a combining form for middle Lateral means pertaining to the side Latero is a combining form for the side The abbreviation is lat Ipsilateral means pertaining to the same side The pre x ipsi means the same 10 Friday August 28 2015 Contralateral means pertaining to the opposite side Contra is a pre x meaning the opposite Unilateral means pertaining to one side Uni is a pre x for one Bilateral means pertaining to two sides Bi is a pre x meaning two Don t confuse the pre x bi with the combining form bio meaning life living Proximal means pertaining to near the point of origin Proximo is a combining form for near Distal means pertaining to farther from the point of origin Disto is a combining form for far Super cial means pertaining to the surface A super cial wound is on the surface External is used to mean the same as super cial Deep means away from the surface of the body This means the same as internal Dextrad means towards the right while sinistrad means towards the left Note that there is one combining form for the right dextro while the left has a combining form sinistro and a pre x levo Afferent means pertaining to carrying fero toward af a structure Efferent means pertaining to carrying fero away from ef a structure Body Cavities Looking inside we can see that the body is composed of cavities In the back of the body are the dorsal cavities and in the front of the body the ventral cavities The dorsal cavities are the cranial cavity remember that cranio means skull and the spinal cavity Spino is a combining form for the spine 11 Friday August 28 2015 The ventral cavities are the thoracic cavity thoraco means chest the abominal cavity abdomino means abdomen and the pelvic cavity pelvi is a combining form for the pelvis Ventral Body Cavities The thoracic cavity is lled with the lungs the heart the esophagus and the trachea windpipe It too has cavities The space between the lungs is called the mediastinum combining form mediastino The doublefolded membrane that surrounds the lungs is termed the pleura The space between the folds is called the pleural cavity The abdominal cavity contains the stomach liver and intestines among others It is separated from the thoracic cavity by a muscle called the diaphragm combining forms diaphragmo diaphragmato phreno The cavity is lined with a highly vascular membrane called the peritoneum combining form peritoneo This is different than the perineum we learned about previously The peritoneum is like a giant garbage bag that contains the abdominal organs The perineum is the space between the genitals and the anus Don t mess that up The pelvic cavity although often listed with the abdominal cavity contains the bladder and reproductive organs If the abominal and pelvic cavities are referred to together the cavity is the abdominopelvic cavity Planes of the body Sagittal Lateral plane Follows the sagittal suture of the skull 12 Vertical plane Creates a right side and a left side Frontal coronal Follows the coronal suture in the skull Vertical plane Creates an anterior and a posterior A front and a back Transverse Crosssectional plane Axial plane Horizontal plane Creates a top and a bottom 13 Friday August 28 2015
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