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Veterans, World War I, Fordism

by: Johnson Womack

Veterans, World War I, Fordism HIST 222

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > History > HIST 222 > Veterans World War I Fordism
Johnson Womack
GPA 3.08

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About this Document

Hope these will help
History of the United States, 1877 to Present
Dr. Julie Reed
Class Notes
red scare, Fordism, World War I, flu pandemic, Veterans
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnson Womack on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 222 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Julie Reed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see History of the United States, 1877 to Present in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
Week 7 2­22­16 How does one progress? What is the democracy that is being encouraged for those countries abroad? Philippines were fighting for independent, and America helped, but America looked to its own agenda to “progress” the Philippines. Whose lives did the US play in? Woodrow Wilson Democrat Took office in 1913, William Jennings Bryan was an anti­imperialist, which was the way  at the time. He believed that the US should expand. “Repudiated” the dollar diplomacy, which meant that he didn’t want to try and fix ties  with Latin America or Cuba because he felt that they were inferior. Interventionist policies Haiti: 1915 established a protectorate, established a new Haitian president, improved the  education, but the work was forced labor. There were some 3,000 deaths during this time. In Central Europe, Germany allied itself with the Austrian­Hungarian Empire. Archduke Franz­Ferdinand was assassinated. Austria declares war on Serbia, July 28,  1914. Wilson sought neutrality.  This was difficult since German­Americans sided with Austria and the Irish­Americans  believed that a British defeat would free Ireland. Eventually, Wilson knew that war would still happen. Mexico Trade and Submarine Warfare ­ Declaration of London, 1909 ­ Submarine Warfare, 1915 ­ Lusitania, May 1915 ­ Sussex, 1916 ­ These were some things that led to the War 1916 ­ Democrat Wilson said that neutrality would not be possible. ­ Zimmerman Telegraph created an angry bond for Germany. ­ April 6, 1917 was when it officially went to war. Supporting the war effort ­ Economic reorganization ­ War industries o WIB: War Industries Board o Food Administration: Herbert hoover controlled the distribution of food  for the states and allies. There were meatless days to feed all of the  consumers. Farmers also benefited since Hoover raised the prices and  provided sufficient labor despite the  o National War labor board: Labor relations were created. Participation  increased, higher wages and fair hours and conditions for working were  becoming better. 8 hour work days, and soon the 48­hour work week. ­ The war opened up opportunities for women to work. o They created munitions. o 40,000 women worked in the steel industry. o There were African­American women working as well. o The south was harder to work in, but the North was a bit more welcoming  although discrimination was still hard. ­ To fund this,  o Taxes were raised. o War bonds helped.  o Ultimately, they had to borrow money from other places. ­ Supporting the war o Selective Service Act o CPI flooded the country with things that publicized events such as this. It  hired artists, professors, and poets all to create things to promote the war  effort. o Espionage act, 1917. o Sedition Act, 1918. o Thomas Quigley hired private Vigilantes to create turmoil and harass  those who they felt, weren’t really helping with the war effort. Casualties of the war efforts ­ Alice Paul was a major fighter for Women’s rights. She would go on hunger  strikes and was even sent to a psychiatric hospital. ­ Her suffrage was ultimately successful. ­ 1917, a Russian delegate came and she told him not to agree to Wilsons’  conditions until he agreed to hers. Another Casualty ­ Eugene V. Debs ­ Elected to Indiana legislature, 1916 ­ Ohio Speech, 1918 ­ Charged under the Espionage Act ­ Sentenced to 10 years in prison in 1919 th ­ He was nominated for the Socialists party for a 5  time as a candidate while he  was in jail. ­ Presidential Nominee, 1920 ­ He was set free on Christmas day in 1921. ­ Wilson’s 14 points plan ­ November 1918 ­ 5 points were for those who were in the German empires were for better treatment for those ­ 1918 was when the ­ Treaty of Versailles 1919 ­ Germany took responsibility for starting the war, pay huge reparations for the  allies, destroy military bases, and not purchase military armaments. ­ Americans lost 115,000 soldiers, but others lost 8 million soldiers and 7 million  civilians that were lost.  2­24­16 Progressivism, Veterans, Humanitarianism ­ War is not the only thing to focus on. In 1918, the flu pandemic killed 700,000.  That’s more than those who died in war. ­ Net Farm income declined by 65% from 1919­1921. The farmers took out loans  to continue it, but as soon as the war ended, they had to fulfill the lands and other  tools they borrowed. ­ Disabled veterans created a situation during the progressive era. The army  discharged 600,000 soldiers who were in training camps who hadn’t gone. They  had to be reintegrated and sent to civilian life, and competing for scarce jobs.  ­ Unemployment mounted as well as inflation occurring. ­ There were race riots. 26 towns and cities resulted in 120 deaths in Chicago 38  were killed, and 500 injured in a 5 day riot. Racial conflict was part of this. ­ To employers were trying to reassert their own authority. They had to raise prices  and change the wages so that they would gain more profit and would keep the  wages fixed. Changes were happening at the work place. Wages increased and  work hours decreased. These came to an end during the war. More than 4 mill  workers launched 3600 strikes in 1919. ­ To employers were trying to reassert their own authority. They had to raise prices  and change the wages so that they would gain more profit and would keep the  wages fixed. Red Scare ­ J. Edgar Hoover headed a system to suppress radicals and enforce conformity.  Radicalism became the chief focus. ­ Wilson and palmer were a part of this ­ Definition: Fear of an American Communist party. Which was formed during this time. ­ The government still enforced heavy laws. ­ Hoover gathered intel on radical leaders for labor unions. Jane Addams and  Senator Robert La Follette. ­ Issued false reports and the government was very close to the media. ­ People were arrested for affiliations, country of origins or languages. ­ Deportation and roundups were used as scare tactics.  ­ The Red Scare started to wane. Louis Post helped stop further deportation by  showing that those were done so for affiliations that were fairly loose such as  country of origins or language. ­ Election of 1920 ­ Warren Harding 16million votes ­ James Cox (D) 9million votes ­ Eugene Debs had a million votes while he was in prison. Fordism ­ Henry Ford led the technological innovation after creating the production line for  the model T ford. ­ The labor is repetitive, dissatisfying and workers become apathetic. ­ Ford: “It was so monotonous, it seemed scarcely possible that any man would  care to continue long at the same job.” ­ The assembly line became boring. ­ The automobile transformed American society. ­ The number of automobile manufacturers dropped from 108 to 44. General  Motors, Chrysler and Ford produced 83% of the nations cars. ­ 1929 200 largest corporations controlled almost half of non­banking corporate  wealth. ­ They controlled half of all of non­banking corporate wealth. ­ Anti­unionism was happening. Companies were offering benefits to decrease  descent.  ­ 1921 National association of manufacturers organized open shop campaigns to  break union shop contracts. All employees had to be union members. Collective  bargaining was considered un­American, and union membership was not required and even prohibited. Phone companies abdicated welfare capitalism was an  alternative ­ Steel companies and other corporations had home financing plans were there.  Borrowing was happening quite a lot. This is what led to the great depression. If  people can’t meet their needs, they won’t really be able to work. ­ Credit occupied 10% of the larger economy. Veterans ­ Veterans have rhetorical, moral and symbolic power that can reflect negatively or  positively on society. ­ Veterans are feared. ­ They were more knowledgeable about things of the United States. ­ They are workers. They are still performing a job. Most jobs don’t require you to  kill someone someday. ­ 1919­present, the veterans stood against many of congress’s policies. ­ The creed of the disabled soldier was to be someone who didn’t need favors. ­ They have made decisions about self­hood and citizenship. ­ 80,000 suffered physical wounds. Some of the injuries were made worse by the  1919 Flu pandemic.


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