Week 1 Lecture and Book notes - Comparative Politics
Week 1 Lecture and Book notes - Comparative Politics CPO 2002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Blanco on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CPO 2002 at Florida State University taught by Quintin Beazer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS in Political Science at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
StudySoub Jaime Biahco Principles of Comparative Politics Preface use only to state the context of class Strategic approach to politics Behavior of rulers and the ruled is most easily understood as the interaction between individuals seeking goals in an environment in which goal attainment is complicated by the choices of other actors Like all science political science is about comparison There are no invalid comparison only invalid reference Chapter 2 What is Science Science Deals with questions that invite criticism Is a method of provisionally understanding the world It needs to be proven ls indefinite and is practiced with exhaustion It is not a body of knowledge It is a method to discover truth but at the same time is variable Needs to be falsifiable potential testable A nonfalsified statement T autology unobservable is not science Scientific Method 1 Question Surprise about preexisting theory and realitya puzzle Borns out of curiosity 2 Theory A theory explains but not describeslt s a LdeHsimplified picture of the world Deals with the uniformity of nature s laws Imagination leads to causation like a story 3 Implications Hypothesis that deals with expectations The requirement of a fertile models is to be observed in various ways needs the opportunity to fail Each opportunity to fail is an opportunity to succeed The more connections it has the more synthesis of knowledge we have 4 Observation Serves to the implications or consistencies A critical test is the comparison of other models with similar implications empirical observation The more severe the test the better 5 Evaluation We are never right but we are always trying to prove wrong Theory is never verified or proven Theory is provisionally fitted in a limited understanding of an unchanging nature StudySoup Jalme Blahco Falsificationism An approach that generates testable hypothesis deductions from theories to explain a phenomena The merits of scientific question lies only in how they stand in critical test Deductive approach to learning What we should see under the theory and test it by observations Theory precedes observation Inductive approach to learning Observe then generates theory Observation precedes theory An introduction to Logic Argument Consists of logically connected statements Contains a premise that leads to a conclusion The relationship between the premise and the conclusion makes an argument valid or not If it is not valid if you are free to accept or reject the conclusion Forms to represent arguments Categorical Syllogism major premise conditional statement HHWaiw Premise Antecedent Consequent antecedent if P consequent then Q minor premise claim either about the the antecedent of the consequent Could be affirming or negating them conclusion claim that is thought to be supported by the premises Valid Arguments Affirming the antecedent in the minor premise Affirming the smaller circle makes the bigger circle affirm the claim Denying the consequent in the minor premise Denying the bigger circle makes the smaller circle deny the claim Invalid Arguments Affirming the consequent in the minor premise Scientific theories can never be proven Denying the antecedent in the minor premise Denying the small circle does not make the bigger circle denny the claim Skp kwpdameBbmb Useful Concepts around Arguments The mere fact of observing the predicted implications does not allow us to categorically accept or reject our theory We cannot say that our theory or correct of verified Scientific theories can never be proven A valid argument can have a conclusion that is factually false and an invalid argument can have a conclusion that tis factually true lmplications about the consequentstated in the minor premise only matter if they prove wrong the antecedent If they prove right they are automatically invalid following the idea that Scientific theories can never be proven Comparative Method The goal is to identify causes of political events They tells us what happens not why Methods Method of Agreement compares cases that agree in regard to the phenomenon to be explained Requires to choses cases that are as different as possible m in regard to the outcome to be explained and one key condition Method of Difference compares cases that disagree in regard to the outcome to be explained Requires to find cases that are identical to each other except in the regard o the outcome to be explained and one key condition The method of agreement could be use to present a conceptphenomenon explained and the method of difference could be use to test a theory outcome explained Necessaiy condition circumstance in whose absence the phenomena in question cannot occun Sufficient condition is a circumstance in whose pretense the phenomena in question must OCCUl The different conditions allow us to build more reliable concepts of our reality Myths and Facts about Science StudySoup Jaime Bianco 1 Myth Science proves things and leads to certain and verifiable truth Fact it offers tentative statements about what seems reasonable within logic and evidence 2Myth Science can be done only when experimental manipulation is possible Fact For theories to be scientific they need only to be falsifiable 3 Myth Science is valueneutral Fact The pursuit of knowledge is base on attempts to change the world 4 Myths Politics cannot be studied in a scientific manner Fact The study of politics generates falsifiable hypothesis
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