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Week 1

by: Jonathan Warburton
Jonathan Warburton
General Chemistry
Paul Rupar

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Week one notes.
General Chemistry
Paul Rupar
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jonathan Warburton on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Paul Rupar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 08/29/15
Chemistry 101 8192015 82115 Required stuff Turning Tech Clicker 66 Casio FX260 calculator 10 Review Session Thursday 630 750 Can only miss two lab sessions Homework link httpuamvlabSDluscom Log In User MyBama ID Password CWID Whv Studv Chemistrv 0 Our ability to understand and control chemistry makes the modern world possible T0p tips for Chemistrv 101 0 Attend Class 0 Finish your prelab assignment before the due date The molecule of the semester is Ammonia Ammonia Q You exist because we ake ammonia Q And yes I mean exist not life as you know it 0 Also useful for making explosives Q Appoxiamtley 1 of the words energy is devoted to Ammonia productio HW 0 Log onto the class website 0 Register your clicker 0 Log into Mylabs plus and complrte the first homework assignment Chapter 1 Learning objective Define what constitutes a good scientific hypothesis scientific theory and scientific law Scientists try to understand the universe through emirical knowledge gained through observation and experiment Observation 0 Some observations are descriptions of the characteristics or behavior of nature qualitative 0 Some observations compre a characteristic to a standard numerical scale quantitative From Observation to Understanding Q Hypothesis a tentative interpretation or explanation for an observation 0 A good hypothesis is one that can be tested to be proven wrong Testing Ideas 0 Ideas in science are tested with experiments 0 An experiment is a set of highly controlled procedures designed to test whether an idea about nature is valid 0 The experiment generates observations that will either validate or invalidate the idea From specific to general understanding 0 A hypothesis is a potential explanation for a single or small number of observations 0 A scientific theory is a general explanation for why things in nature are the way they are and behave the way they do From Specific to General Observations Q A scientific law is a statement that summarizes all past observations and predicts future observations 0 Law of Conservation of Mass In the chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed Q A scientific law allows you to predict future observations Learning Obiectives Define key characteristics of a solids liquids and gases Know how to classify matter into elements compounds heterogeneous mixtures and homogeneous mixtures Classification of Matter O O Solids O O Liguids O O O O O Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass Matter comes in three different states 0 Solid Liquid and gas Do not flow Not compressible Flow Don t expand Constant Volume Particles are not held together Lots of empty space Classifying Matter bv Composition 0 Another way to classify matter is to examine its composition Composition includes 0 types of particles 0 arrangement of the particles 0 attractions and attachments between the particles Matter can either be a pure substance of a mixture Clssification of Matter bv Composition 0 Matter whose composition does not change from one sample to another is called a pure substance 0 made of a single type of atom or molecule 0 because the composition of a pure substance is always the same all samples have the same characteristics 0 Matter whose composition may vary from one sample to another is called a mixture 0 two or more types of atoms or molecules combined in variable proportions 0 because composition varies different samples have different characteristics Classification of Pure Substances Elements 0 Pure substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical reactions are called elements 0 decomposed broken down 0 basic building blocks of matter 0 composed of single type of atom I though those atoms may or may not be combined into molecules Classification of Pure Substances Compounds 0 Pure so all samples of ae substances that can be decomposed are called compounds 0 chemical combinations of elements 0 composed of molecules that contain two or more different kinds of atoms 0 all molecules of a compound are identical so all samples of a compound behave the same way 0 Most natural pure substances are compounds Classification of Mixtures Q Homogeneous mixtures are mixtures that have uniform composition throughout 0 every piece of a sample has identical characteristics though another sample with the same components may have different characteristics 0 atoms or molecules mixed uniformly 0 Example Salt Q Heterogeneous mixtures are mixtures that do not have uniform composition throughout 0 regions within the sample can have different characteristics 0 atoms or molecules not mixed uniformly 0 Example Sand Chapter 1 Dav 2 Learning Obiectives The law of definite proportions The law of multiple proportions Dalton s atomic theory Cathode rays and what they tell us about matter Mullikan s experiment and what we learn from it Rutherford s gold foil experiment The electron What is learned from the gold foil experiment The Atom 0 All matter is made of atoms In a chemical reaction atoms are never created or destroyed Structure of the atom Q Electrons EA Protons Pquot Q Neutrons nAO Structure of the atom pt 2 Q Proton Q Have a mass 167262 x 10quot27 kg 1 amu 0 Charge 1 60218 x10quot19 coulomb 1 0 Neutrons Q Have a mass of 167493 X 10quot27 kg 1 amu Q Have a charge of 0 Q Electrons Q Have a mass of 000091 x 10quot27 kg 000055 amu 0 amu Q Have a charge of 160218 x10quot19 c 1 The Elements 0 Each element has a specific number of protons within its nucleus 0 The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number number 0 The atomic number uses the symbol 2 O Eg an atom with a 22 is a helium atom it has 2 protons in its nucleus There are about 116 different elements Each element has a different number of protons or Z number Each Element is given a symbol The periodic table lists the elements in order of their Z Chemists care very much about protons and electrons because the chemistry of an element is determined by its atomic number 0 The chemistry of fluorine z 9 is very different from the chemistry of neon 210 Isotopes All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons However the number of neutron can vary These are called isotopes 99 of all carbon atoms have 6 nquot0 1 of all carbon atoms have 7 nquot0 ltltlt1 o of carbon atoms have 8 n quot0 28 Mass Number SI Element 14 Atomic Number Random Note about AMUs 0 Since the masses of neutrons and protons are not exactly 1 amu the masses of isotopes are not whole numbers 5 3 n 0 Neutral atoms have an equal number or protons and electrons 0 During Chemical reactions atoms gain or lose equot to become charged to form Ions 0 Z never changes in chemistry 101 0 Examples of common ions 0 Fquot the fluoride ion forms by giving a fluorine atom one extra electron O Caquot2 calcium ion formed by removing two electrons from a calcium ion 0 The properties of ions are very different from the parent element For example 0 Sodium Na metal reacts violently with water 0 Chlorine gas CL2 is highly corrosive and toxic 0 However sodium chloride which is composed of Naquot cations and CIA is not toxic and not very reactive The law of Conservation of Mass 0 In a chemical reaction matter is neither created or destroyed Q The mass of what you end up with must equal the mass that you started with 0 Always The law of Definite Prooortions 0 All samples of a pure substance always have the same proportions of their constituent elements 0 Ex 18g of water is composed of 16g of oxygen and 2 g hydrogen Mass Ratio is 160g 0 20g H 80g O10g H John Dalton 0 Parts of Dalton s Atomic Theory are still viewed to be mostly correct after 200 years 0 Elements are made up of atoms 0 All atoms of a given element are identical 0 Atoms cannot be created or destroyed 0 Compounds are made of atoms combined in whole number ratios 0 During a chemical reaction atoms are separated and combined 0 What part of Dalton s theory are known to be somewhat incorrect 0 All atoms of a given element are identical 0 Atoms cannot be created or destroyed JJ Thomson and the Cathode Rav Tube 0 Glass tube containing metal electrodes from which almost all the air has been evacuated Q When connected to a high voltage power supply a glowing area is seen emanating from the cathode Q The beam is deflected by external charges and magnets 0 Similar to an oldschool TV 0 The cathode rays are made of tiny particles 0 These particles have a negative charge 0 because the beam always deflected toward the plate 0 The amount of deflection was related to two factors the charge and mass of the particles 0 Every material tested contained these same particles 0 The charge mass ratio of these particles was 176 X 1OA8 Cg O C coulomb SI unit of charge 0 the chargemass of the hydrogen ion is 58 X 10quot4 Cg Thomson s Conclusions Millikan s Oil Droo Experiment 0 Small drops of oil were suspended within the chamber 0 As the drops of oil fell through the air they were negatively charged by ionizing radiation 0 Millikan applied an electric field to stop the oil drops from falling 0 By knowing the mass of the oil drops how and the strength of electric field Millikan could measure the amount of charge on the drops 0 What Millikan found was remarkable The charge on each drop was a multiple of 160 X 10A19 C 0 This is the charge of an electron Q Millikan was also able to determine the mass of an electron by combining his data with Thomson s 9X1 Oquot28g Electrons Electrons are tiny negatively charged particles All atoms are made from electrons The electron has a charge of 160 X 10A19 C The electron has a mass of 91X10A28g The cathode rays are made of streams of electron The Plumpudding model of the Atom 0 For the first time the atom was shown to be divisible Atoms have inner structure Moving Bevond Puddino 0 Background Alpha particles are positively charged particles are positively emitted by some radioactive materials Electrons Electrons are tiny negatively charged particles All atoms are made from electrons The electron has a charge of 160 X 10quot19 C The electron has a mass of 91 x 10quot28 g The cathode rays are made of streams of electrons Alpha Particles Composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons Are heavier than electrons Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment lf atom was like a plum pudding all the a Over 98 of the alpha particles went straight through About 2 of the alpha particles went through but were deflected by large angles About 0005 of the alpha particles bounced off the gold foil Rutherford s Conclusion 0 Most alpha particles travel straight through the foil Therefore matter and atoms is mostly empty space 0 A few alpha particles bounce back from the foil Therefore there must be something very small very dense and positively charged within matter Rutherford s Interpretation 0 The atom contains a dense center called the nucleus 0 The nucleus is 10quot11 times smaller than the atom 0 Most of the mass of the atom is in the nucleus 0 The nucleus is positively charged balancing the electrons o The electrons are in the empty space surrounding the nucleus 0 Rutherford proposed that the nucleus is composed of particles that are positively charged He called them protons o The charge of protons is the same magnitude as the electron but opposite sign 0 Charge 160 X 10quot19 C and a mass 167262 x 10quot24g Atomic Mass and Mass Spectrometrv Learning Obiectives 0 Calculated the average atomic mass of an element Interpret simple mass spectra Relates mass spectra to the average atomic mass of an element The Atomic Mass Many elements have multiple stable isotopes The ratio of different isotopes within a sample of constant Eg Chlorine o Chlorine has 2 common isotopes 35Cl and 37Cl 35Cl is 7577 abundant 37Cl is 2433 abundant Atomic mass 3542 amu Mass Spectrometrv There are many different ways for a scientist to measure the mass of an isotope A Mass Spectrometer can measure the mass of atoms and molecules How it works It works by moving ions past magnets and measuring how much the ions are deflected by the magnets o Lighter ions are deflected more by the magnets Heavier ions are deflected less A mass spectrum is a graph that vies the relative mass and relative abundance of each particle Relative mass of the particle is plotted on the Xaxis Relative abundance of he the particle is plotted on the yaxis What is Mass Spectrometry good for 0 Determining isotopic ratios 0 Measuring the mass of molecules Can be applied to proteins o Commonly used in forensic analysis 0 Common used in medical diagnostics Why are there so many signals


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