HIST 1301, Week 1, Lecture Notes
HIST 1301, Week 1, Lecture Notes HIST 1301
Popular in History of U.S. to 1865
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pankuch on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Manuel B Ramirez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. to 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
HIST 1301 Professor Manuel Ramirez Email mbramirezute edu Lecture N otes First Week Pre Columbian Migrations t0 the Americas Early settlers from Asia used land masses Bering Strait or Berangia 4500025000 BC Environment Lacked trees has savage winds subzero temperatures in winter In summer the sun came out along with vegetation Animals Including mammoth bison caribou and wolves Lifestyle Hunted in summer winter hunting was not possible gathered berries no domesticated animals animal dung fires ate frozendried meat Dwindling food supply after population increase around 12000 BC Planet started warming up ice disappears and more water is available In 1000 to 2000 years the land mass disappears 10000 BC opening through the glaciers travel southward possible Encountered beavers bearsize and sloths reaching several tons 9000 BC reached tip of South America 1492 estimated 145 million people 2000 languages when Columbus arrived Various cultures 1 From nomadic to sophisticated and advanced 2 Most advanced located in the South and only represented a minority of Indians Mayas 250900 AD The Mayas were not a unified Empire but consisted of city states had a polytheistic religion controlled education and were very powerful Foods Hot chocolate corn squash beans some meats Aesthetically Inclined Preferred crosseyed children filed teeth shaped their heads into ovals decorated teeth With jade Architecture Pyramids Agriculture Calendars Mathematics Number system based on 20s Gender division of labor Men farmed and women took care of domestic duties System of writing Folding tree books or stone tablets Collapse of the Mayas Warfare Through protecting their own land and taking others Exploitation of Rainforest killed off their food source Overpopulation most densely populated at time Drought Mexicas Aztecs Were a centralized empire in Central Southern Mexico and Guatemala Migrated from North to Central Mexico Began conquering neighbors Capitol was Tenochtitlan an island in Lake Texcoco Were the unrivaled power in the area under Montezuma II 1502 Had an estimated total population of 25 million The capitol had an estimated population of 350000 making it the most populated city at the time Religion Had a polytheistic religion Cult of Huitzilopochtli Sources of human sacrifices usually criminals slaves conquered Indians and prisoners of war Social Structure Emperor Nobility Important groups merchants war chiefs and priests Commoners Arrival of the Iberians Hernando Cortez led the conquest in 1519 arrived off of the coast of Veracruz with a small force of 1000 men Played off rivalries of competing Indians Had superior weapons brought sickness smallpox was the most deadly armor and horses The Totonacs forged an alliance with the Spanish The Tlaxcalans attacked the Spanish and could have won forcing the Spanish out but they forged an alliance with the Spanish instead November 1519 Cortez arrives in Tenochtitlan the capitol Bernal Diaz a soldier and chronicler for the Spanish wrote a book about the conquest He wrote that the Spanish were amazed at the capitol s architecture organization and cleanliness They were welcomed by the Indians as well The Indians took part of MesoAmerican War traditions which included no honor in fighting a weak enemy and viewed war as a very religious affair The Indians used the Macana a paddleshaped wooden club with points made of obsidian around its edges The first major battle between the Spanish and the Aztecs was at Nocha Triste The Spanish massacred hundreds when they were gathered at a religious event By the end 400 Spanish were dead or wounded and 4000 Indians died Montezuma was killed as well The Spanish were defeated Fall of the Aztecs Disease and an epidemic of smallpox wiped out most of the Aztec military and leaders Spaniards sieged Mexico City killing the diseased and weak searching them for valuables afterwards The city fell on 21 August 1521 Cuauhtemoc The Emperor attempted to escape but was captured and executed After the diseases brought by the Spanish the population went from 25 million to 1 million by 1595 Video Notes Spanish brought in wheat chicken pig and the Indians learned to use these items as well as oxen for plowing The Spanish learned about adobe houses the way of the desert and how to hunt Spanish Expeditions in the North 1528 a shipwreck led the four survivors to discover the Texas area of the Southwest Alvaro Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and a black slave Estavancio were two of four survivors 1536 the survivors were rescued and brought to Mexico City Seven Cities of Cibola or the cities ofgold 1539 Marcos de Nizo a priest went on an expedition to find the cities of gold He sent back reports saying that he had seen the cities of gold Hernando de Soto 1539 Soto the governor of Cuba left with approximately 500 individuals to explore Florida Search for mineral wealth such as gold or silver Reached Mississippi River but contracted a fever and died during the expedition Survivors returned to Mexico in 1543 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado Coronado came from a wealthy family in Spain and is perhaps the best known of the of explorers Appointed governor of Nueva Galicia 1540 left with approximately 1000 individuals native Indians and some women to find Cibola Traveled to Arizona and New Mexico In New Mexico he found Cibola which was a pueblo city The Indians convinced him that the golden cities were in Gran Quivira Traveled all the way to Kansas after finding out that the golden cities were not in Gran Quivira Coronado killed his Indian guide Ended expedition with a squandered fortune Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo 1540 s First to reach California explored the coast California at the time was known as Alta California Cabrillo broke his leg during the expedition and died The survivors reported that the area was heavily populated by Indians and natural resources After discovering that there was no gold the exploration of California and the Southwest was discouraged for 50 years New Mexico 1598 permanent colonies established England was a threat to Spanish colonization England Francis Drake sent by Queen Elizabeth I circled the earth from 1577 1580 and was a leading explorer Reached Lima in South America Reached California Attacked and plundered Spanish ships Juan de O ate O ate organized the Spanish colonization of New Mexico In January 1598 O ate with approximately 130 soldiers established the first upper Rio Grande settlement called San Juan de los Caballos 1598 after native Indians attacked the Spanish O ate killed over 800 of the Indians including women and children 1607 O ate was removed as governor because of his cruelty Encomiendas O ate and his men were given encomiendas or the rights to extract Indian labor In return the Spanish were to protect and civilize the Indians by converting them to Catholicism Types of Indians Sedentary Descended from the Anasazi Included the Hopi the Zuni and Acoma Were advanced and located in the 4 comers area Lived in pueblos and towns Migrated Southward in 1000 AD some settled in the desert Eastern Pueblos settled along the Rio Grande Nomadic Recent arrivals Included Apache Comanche and Navajo From the Great Plains Huntedgatheredraided the Pueblos and the Spanish The Columbian Exchange There was a biologicalcultural interaction Disease Smallpox u measles Genocide Astronomical death rate from disease and killing Crops Sugar and bananas from the Spanish Corn squash beans and potatoes from the Indians Animals Cattle pigs sheep and the horse from the Spanish Religion Spanish converted Indians to Catholicism Differences between the English and Spanish Empires In political economic and population English Empire Lax control over the creation of political institutions Had varied economies that were more diverse Populated mainly by families that isolated themselves from the Indians Spanish Empire Had great control over colonies and prevented independent political institutions Economy was focused on extracting mineral wealth lacked farming or commerce Populated mainly by single men intermarried With the Indians and created mixed races
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