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Week 1 Lecture notes - Body Organization

by: Haley Cheesman

Week 1 Lecture notes - Body Organization BSC227

Marketplace > Marshall University > Biological Sciences > BSC227 > Week 1 Lecture notes Body Organization
Haley Cheesman
GPA 3.5
Human Anatomy
Strait, Suzanne

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About this Document

These are my detailed lecture notes from week 1. Hopefully this is helpful for you!
Human Anatomy
Strait, Suzanne
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Cheesman on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC227 at Marshall University taught by Strait, Suzanne in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Marshall University.

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Date Created: 08/29/15
BSC 227 Human Anatomy Human anatomy structure of the human body Human physiology function of anatomical structures The Anatomical Sciences Gross Anatomy the study of the structure visible to the naked eye 0 Systemic anatomy study one organ system at a time 0 Regional anatomy multiple organ systems in a given region Perspective typically taught at medical schools Methods of Study lnspection looking at surface appearance Palpation feeling a structure Auscultation listening to normal sounds Percussion tapping and listening Dissection cutting and separating of tissues 0 Use of cadavers Medical Imaging Replaces many exploratory surgeries Radiology branch of medicine concerned with imaging lnvasive inserted into the body Noninvasive no penetration of the body Levels of structural complexity Subatomic particles Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells smallest living unit Tissue Organ Organ system Organism single complete individual Levels of Human Structure Organism composed of organ systems Organ systems composed of organs Organs composed of tissues Tissues composed of cells Cells composed in part of organelles Cells are the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life Nothing simpler than a cell is considered alive Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of life Multicellular A tissue is a masslayer of similar cells that performs a speci c function Two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function De nite anatomical boundaries Are visibly distinguishable from adjacent structures An organ system is a group of organs that carry out a basic function of the organism The human body has 11 systems Organ systems 11 organ systems quotimmune systemquot a population of cells not true organ system Systems are classi ed by principal functions Some organs belong to two or more systems 0 Male urethra o Pharynx o Mammary glands Integumentary protein support movement Skeletal protein support movement Muscular protein support movement Nervous internal communication integration Endocrine internal communication integration Circulatory uid transport Lymphatic uid transport Respiratory input and output Digestive input and output Urinary input and output Reproductive reproduction o Combining names of two systems provide the relationships between two systems eg Musculoskeletal system cardiopulmonary system urogenital system The History of Anatomical Terminology Eponyms tombstone names Terminologia Anatomica 1998 more than 50 countries Eponyms are unof cial each structure has a unique Latin name to be used worldwide About 90 of today39s medical terms are formed primarily from 1200 Greek and Latin roots Analyzing Medical Terms Root word core meaning 0 Cardiology card means heart 0 Many words have two or more roots Combining vowels Pre x beginning of a word Suf x end of word Anatomical Position Standing erect with feet at Arms at the sides supinated Palms face and eyes facing forward Provides a constant reference of body position Supine face up Prone face down General Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Planes Sagittal plane divides into right and left portions Midsagittal plane equal right and left halves Frontal plane divides into anterior and posterior portions Transverse plane divides into superior and inferior portions Directional Terms Anterior ventral toward the front Posterior dorsal toward the back Superior cranial above lnferior below Medial toward the midline Lateral away from the midline Proximal near closer to the point of origin Distal far farther from the point of origin Deep farther from the body surface Super cial closer to the body surface Body Regions Two major region Axial region 0 Head cervical region neck and trunk o The trunk is further divided into the thoracic region above the diaphragm and the abdominal region below it Appendicular region 0 Upper and lower limbs Axial Head and Neck Cephalic region Facial Cranial Orbital Oral Nasal Mental Thoracic Region Pectoral Sternal Acromial Axillary Vertebral Scapular Axial Abdomen and Pelvis Abdominal region Umbilical Lumbar Pelvic region Pubic Inguinal Sacral Gluteal Perineal Appendicular region Consists of the upper and lower limbs appendages or extremities o The upper limb includes Brachium Cubital Antebrachium Carpus Manus Palmarsurface Dorsum Digits o The lower limb includes Thigh femoral Crus crural Popliteal Patellar Tarsus Pes Dorsum Plantarsurface Surface Body cavities and membranes The body is internally divided into two major body cavities o Dorsal cavity 0 Ventral cavity Organs within these cavities are called viscera Various membranes line the cavities cover the viscera and hold the viscera in place The Dorsal Body Cavity The dorsal body cavity has two subdivisions 0 Cranial cavity Enclosed by the cranium braincase Contains the brain 0 Vertebral canal Enclosed by the vertebral column spine Contains the spinal cord The ventral body cavity The ventral body cavity is partitioned by a muscular sheet the diaphragm into two cavities 1 thoracic and 2 abdominopelvic cavity 0 Both are lines with thin serous membranes Thoracic Cavity Lungs two layered serous membrane Pleura o Parietal pleura outer layer 0 Visceral pleura adheres to lungs o Pleural cavity between visceral and parietal layer Mediastinum Heart is enclosed by a two layered serous membrane the pericardium o The visceral pericardium forms the heart surface 0 The parietal pericardium is the outer layer 0 The space between them is the pericardial cavity The abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal cavity 0 Mostly digestive organs Pelvic cavity 0 Distal part of the large intestine the urinary bladder and urethra and the reproductive organs Peritoneum o Moist serous membrane Parietal peritoneum lines the walls of the cavity Visceral peritoneum covers external surfaces of most digestive organs Peritoneal cavity retroperitoneal OOOO


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