Notes - Week 1
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ciara Peace on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol4050 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Anthony Quinn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Immunology in Biology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Immunology Week 1 Chapter 1 elements of the immune system and their roles in defense 0 While blood cells don t stay in one organ they change their gene expression unlike other cells 0 Receptorligand interaction required for homeostasis Disease often occurs when there are mutations in aa sequence or expression levels 0 Insulin 9 insulin receptor 9 diabetes 0 02 9 hemoglobin 9 SSA sickle cell anemia 0 The pathogens in our environment are unstable and mutable causing the receptors to mutate as well to bind which causes diseases and health issues Immune resist infection Immune system cells and organs that provide resistance Vaccination creating an immune state and prevention of disease by mimicking infection cells in the immune system are activation or respond to receptorligand interactions 0 Cells are defined by the genes they express 0 the proteins are either soluble secreted or expressed on the surface of the cell 0 they communicate with other cells 0 gene expression can be altered in response to a receptor receptor 9 ligand 9 phosphoylation 0 infections disease and cancer are associated with defective immune systems or responses 0 HIV AIDS 0 genetic defects that produce abnormal WBC 0 exposure to radiation or toxic compounds major role of immune system is to protect from infectious agents maintain homeostasis 0 vaccines mimic infections and provide resistance to subsequent infection 0 they have lead to the suppression of global diseases 0 small pox considered eradicated by CDC and WHO 0 measles USA almost eradicated vs Africa 90000 cases a year 0 unresolved TB HIV Ebola 0 seasonal allergies and asthma are also driven by the immune system 0 autoimmune disease like multiple sclerosis MS are caused by aberrant immune responses 0 MS can cause permanent damage to CNS over time 0 attack myelin sheaths in nerve cells 0 T cells have huge impact Antigen 0 any molecule that stimulates the immune system is considered an antigen 0 usually binds to immunoreceptor 0 ephope o the specific region of an antigen that binds an immunoreceptor 0 IMPORTANT This is why we have to take a flu vaccine each year 0 The infectious agent changes one amino acid of the epitope 0 Immunoreceptor 0 Molecule used by immune cells to detect an antigen related to infectious agents 0 Germline o The DNA sequence for all the genes is the same in all cells of the body 0 T cells and B cells can change their DNA but NO OTHER CELLS CAN DO THAT Four Classes of Pathogens 0 Bacteria 0 Viruses 0 Parasites protozoa and worms 0 Fungi Immune system must respond to diverse pathogens 0 Bacteria 0 ntracelularextracellular 0 Endotoxinexotoxin 0 Fungi eukaryoteprokaryote 0 Viruses 0 Fungi eukaryoticprokaryotic 0 Parasites multicellularunicellular 0 Can be large pathogens typically prefer a particular site of entry 0 The skin and mucosal surfaces form natural protective barriers Once they are breached the immune system takes over Eyes Oral cavity Sinuses Genitals OOOO together these make up the gastrointestinal urogenital and respiratory tracts which pathogens can get into 0 Lucas county has a high STD rate Cells of the immune system all of the cellular elements of the immune system WBC arise from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow o TB cell TB lymphocyte o Compartments and fluids 0 Intracellular vs extracellular I Extracellular includes interstitial tissues and plasma blood 0 Two major lineages of the immune system are the lymphoid and myeloid o Lymphoid derivatives I TB cells I Natural killer cells NK 0 Myeloid derivatives I Blood 0 Polymorphonuclear cells PM N o Neutrophils eosinophils basophils o Monocytes I Tissues o Dendritic cells 0 Macrophages o Mast cells Leukocytes white blood cells 0 biased towards T cells if you have defects in other cells you ll get an infection or some disease but if you have a defect in your T cells you ll DIE o T cells tell every other cell how to do their jobs o If you control the T cells you can control the response 0 Conrol T cells to control histamines with allergies Lymphocytes B and T will form and direct the adaptive immune response Highly specialized Requires exposure Has to learn When a kid gets measles once and then never again Most numerous in lymph and lymphoid organs short half life always replacing them Small lymphocyte production of antibodies B cells or cytotoxic and helper functions T cells Plasma cells fully differentiated form of B cell that secretes antibodies adaptive immune response requires B andor T cells If not it s innate Natural killer cells kill virually tumor or bacterially infected cells Part of lymphoid but INNATE response Dendritic cells responsible for activating T cells and initiating adaptive immune response PMN polymorphonuclear neutrophils basophils and eosinophils Neutrophils o Phagocytes that attack and engulf bacteria 0 Antibacterial o Phagocytocis and killing of microorganisms 0 Most numerous Eosinophils 0 Killing of antibody coated parasites through release of granule contents Basophils o Allergies parasites 0 Unknown mechanism PMNs and mast cells are also called granulocytes Mast cells attack parasites but aren t PM Ns Mast cell 0 Allergy parasite o Expulsion of parasite from body through release of granules containing histamines and other active agents Monocytes 0 Blood circulating derivatives 0 Precursor for macrophages 0 Macrophage o In tissue 0 Phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms o Activated T cells and immune response Most leukocytes are found in blood while others are found in tissues 0 Mast cells dendritic and macrophages in tissues 0 Neutrophils eosinophils and basophils in blood 0 with infection these will change 0 mast cellsmacrophages are in blood when they are on their way to other tissues
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